• Post on Facebook
  • Twitter
  • pdf
  • Print version
  • save

Dealing with the Narrations Objecting to the Permissibility of Revolt

|   |   times read : 13
Font size: Decrease font Enlarge font

Dealing with the Narrations Objecting to the Permissibility of Revolt:


(The Fifth). There are many narrations that apparently forbid people from revolting against the authority. Some understood absolute forbiddance based on their interpretation of those stories. Therefore, little by little, they became an excuse that justifies the path of isolationism, negativity, separation from others, and carelessness against public matters. The unjust and licentious rulers are left to do what they want. However, the offerings and behavior of Imams (P) were blessed and had positive outcomes even when they boycotted the authority as mentioned earlier.

We present here those narrations([1]) to understand the purpose. The narrations can be divided into several types:


First: Narrations Providing Evidence that Revolting before the Rebellion of Al-Qa’em (Imam Mahdi) is Harm:

There is a narration of Rib’i with citation reaching Ali Ibn al-Husayn (P). He says, “By Allah, any of us revolting before the rebellion of Al-Qa’em will be like a chick flying from its nest before his wings are complete, so boys would take him and play around with him.”([2])

Similarly, Jaber narrated Abi Jaafar (P) saying, “When Al-Qa’em of our Household revolts, it is like the emigration of the Prophet (P); and when someone of us, the Prophet’s household, revolts before Al-Qa’em returns, it is like a chick flying and falling from its nest, so boys play with it.”([3])

Similarly, there are narrations in the introduction of Sahifa Sajjadiya, in the manner it was narrated by Mutawakkil Ibn Haroun, who took it from Yahya Ibn Zaid who was in Khorasan when he left after the martyrdom of his father. In it, Imam Sadek is cited saying, “Anyone who has revolted or will revolt from us the Household of the Prophet untilAl-Qa’em returns, to defend against oppression or revive right, has been hit with calamity, and his revolt was a cause of the increase of the harm against us and our Shia.”

In my opinion:

1-  The two narrations are weak in terms of reference. In the first, there is (Rib’i) which is in common with what Ibn Abdullah Ibn al-Jaroud says, and he is trustworthy according to Nagashi. Rib’i Ibn Mohamed does not exist as the true name is Rabi’ Ibn Mohamed according to what is mentionedin another place of Tahthib and Kafi. This is known through the narrations. Even if (Rib’i) existed. However, the narration is weak as there are disruptions in the narration. As for the second narration, Mohamed Ibn al-Muthanna al-Hadhrami and Othman Ibn Yazid are not documented.

As for the source of Sahifa Sajjadiya, it includes Mohamed Ibn Abdullah Ibn al-Muttaleb al-Shibani Abu al-Fadel whom Nagashi said about him, “Most of our companions talked about him negatively and said his narrations are weak.” In addition, there were books that were said to be written by him including a book on the virtues of Abbas Ibn al-Muttaleb. This has led Sheikh Montazari to doubt the credibility of his narrations that are in line with the politics of Bani al-Abbas [the Abbasids]. However, this issue is not to be discussed here. In the introduction there is mention of what the Abbasids would not like in view of the endorsement of the revolutions against them. Ibn al-Ghada’iri said, “He fabricated a lot of narrations and committed many wrongdoings.”

In this regard, Sheikh Montazari said, “It might be said that the companions’ receipt of the book of Sahifa Sajjadiya from him is evidence that he documented a certain work. It is worth contemplating.”([4])

In my opinion, Perhaps the call for contemplation means acceptance of the prayers (Du’a) in Sahifa Sajjadiya. There is mentioned evidence, for example, matching the copy preserved with Imam Sadek (P) regarding the same narration. Nevertheless, the companions’ receipt of the narration and accepting it does not necessitate the validation of the documentation of its narrator. We will not be validating the documentation from him in this work.

2-  These narrations might be a matter of presenting criticism of the rebels who belong to the Prophet’s Household who want themselves to be leaders and not necessarily calling for the satisfaction of the Prophet’s Household. There is a number of narrations for this caveat such as the saying of Abi Jaafar to Abi al-Jaroud, “Beware the Kharijites from us; they are not based on a valid foundation and they are doomed.”([5]) Imam Sadek (P) said, “The one who revolts today calling you to the satisfaction of the Prophet’s Household is someone we are not satisfied with, and we set you as witness. Today, he is disobeying our orders.”([6])

3-  These narrations might forbid from armed revolt, which was adopted by rebels in particular. This is what the writer of Wasail understood when he chose a title for the Chapter of (Rule of Armed Rebellion before the Return of Al-Qa’em). There was a further elaboration that Imams did not adopt it, even Imam Sadek (P). The narrations do not prevent rebellion against the authority absolutely even in other methods and mechanisms such as demonstrations, turmoil, demonstrations, etc.

4-  There is evidence that shows forbidding rebellion before completing prerequisites and conditions, i.e. prematurely, but not absolutely. Such evidence includes:

a.  The simile of a chick’s flight before the wings fully grow.

b.  Placing premature rebellion against the appearance of Al-Qa’em who has long disappeared in order to complete the elements of success to establish the blessed state of right and justice. These elements have not been complete at that time and similar times.

5-  “What is meant by the narration mentioned in Sahifa Sajjadiya, supposing it was a narration for sure, is not a description of the sharia rule [in the case of revolt]. It does not tell if rebellion against the oppressor is permissible or not. It is a declaration of a hidden order that Imam (P) received from his ancestors. He meant to say that a rebel of the Prophet’s Household is not guaranteed complete success without facing calamities. As it is known, people hate misfortunes by nature; however, not every mishap is forbidden [Haram] or encouraged to leave in religion [Makrouh]. As the holy verse says, {Perhaps you would hate one thing, but find it is good for you}. There might be blessings for it from other sides. The narration does not indicate that rebellion and confrontation is a sin.

What the Prophet (P) has told about the martyrdom of al-Husayn or Zaid in the afterlife did not prevent them from rebellion after the assignment was stipulated.”([7])

6-  Presuming that the narration describes the job and sharia rule; it is, as one can see, relevant to the Prophet’s Household. It may not be used for us to shy away from confrontation nowadays.”([8])

The Second: Evidence to the Necessity to Remain at Home and Abstention from Rebellion:

There is a narration from Rawda with a citation provided by Sudair. He said, “Abu Abdullah (P) said, “Sudair, remain at home and be like a rug, a part of its furniture and be tranquil during the nights and the day. If you know that Sufiani has come out, leave to us, even if you have to walk on foot.”([9])

In a narration of Sheikh Sadouk in Uyun, Ma’ani and Sheikh Tousi and his son in their “Majales” with a citation of al-Hussein Ibn Khaled. He said, “I told Abi al-Hasan al-Rida, “Abdullah Ibn Bukair narrated a hadith. I would like to validate it from you.” He said, “What is that Hadith?”, I said, “Ibn Bukair said, “Obeidullah Ibn Zurarah said, “I was at AbiAbdullah (P) when Mohamed (Ibrahim) Ibn Abdullah Ibn al-Hasan revolted. One of our companions entered to him. He said, “I sacrifice myself for you, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah has revolted; what do you say in revolting with him.” He said, “Be tranquil as long as Heaven and Earth are tranquil. There is no Qa’em and no rebellion.” Abu al-Hasan (P) said, “Abu Abdullah (P) is truthful. This is not as Ibn Bukair interpreted. Abu Abdullah (P) meant, be tranquil as long as Heaven is tranquil without a call coming from it, and Earth from opening sinkholes that swallow the Army.”([10])

In Nahjul Balagha, Imam Ali (P) was cited saying in a sermon, “Stay on Earth; be patient against calamity; and rest your hands and swords according to your personal interests.”([11])

Mohamed Ibn al-Hasan narrated in the Book of the Disappearance citing al-Fadel Ibn Shathan citing al-Hasan Ibn Mahboub citing Amr Ibn Abi al-Miqdam citing Jaber citing Abi Jaafar (P). He said, “Remain on the ground and move no hand and no foot until you see marks that I will mention to you, and I do not see you would be alive to witness them. The disagreement of some dynasty; someone calling from Heaven; and you will get the voice from the side of Damascus.”([12])

Nu’mani narrated in his Ghaybah with a citation of Abi al-Jaroud citing Abi Jaafar (P). He said, “I told him give me a recommendation. He said, “I advise you to be god-fearing and to remain at home and to remain far from the darkness of those (the tendencies) of people. Beware the Kharijites from us for they do not base on our foundations and the will end up doomed. You should know that Umayyad rulers have authority that people cannot remove. However, the righteous shall have a state that when its time arrives, Allah would grant authority over it for whomever he chooses of us the Household of the Prophet. The one who lives at that time and follows it will be with us at the highest degree even if he dies before. You should know that every group of people that revolts to repel injustice or support religion would be struck with calamity until a group that fought at the Battle of Badr with the Prophet (P) revolts. Their dead are not buried, and their casualty are not lifted. Their wounded are not treated. I said, “Who are they?” He said, “They are angels.””([13])

The response to the above is:

1-  The narration describes the stance against the revolutions of the Household of Imam Ali (P), particularly the descendants of Imam Hasan who were in rivalry with Imam Sadek (P) according to some narrations. The narration of al-Hussein Ibn Khaled citing Imam Rida (P) is explicit in this regard.

2-  It is apparently possible to understand from this narration that it was meant to falsify the claims of those claiming to be al-Mahdi [but were not] and who use this claim to deceive people and increase his followers. The narration aimed at saying that the time and these movements were not the meant revolt of Imam Mahdi. Some of the descendants of Imam Hasan (P) claimed to be Imam Mahdi as some narrations claim. Abu Jaafar al-Mansour also named his son Mohamed and called him al-Mahdi to delude people with the claim.

3-  Some, as those mentioned in Nahjul Balagha, do not prevent from rebellion in general. They rather forbid the enthusiastic and irrational movements without proof and examination.

4-  Some of them appear to be assigning the person addressed with the narration in particular. One example is the first narration of Sudair who was moody, emotional and reckless. In Tanqeeh al-Maqal, (Sudair was mentioned at the seating of Abi Abdullah (P). He said, “Sudair is a porridge with all colors.”([14])) There is another narration citing al-Moalla, (Page 416 of the original publication) about Sudair and Abdul-Salam Ibn Abdurrahman Ibn Nu’aim. Aba Abdullah said to Zaid al-Shahham, “Shahham, I asked my god in[for] Sudair and Abdul-Salam Ibn Abdurrahman, and they were in prison, so he granted them to me, and let them go.”([15])Sudair is the one saying to Imam Sadek (P), “By Allah, you cannot stay and not revolt.” He said, “Why Sudair?” Sudair said, “Your followers, Shia and supporters are abundant.” He mentioned that he had two hundred thousand. At the end, he (P) said, “By Allah Sudair, if I had Shia as many as these goats, I could not stay without revolt.”([16])Forthat matter, the goats were seventeen.

Remark:

Note: Some narrations in this chapter have been mentioned in the sense of forbidding the call to the Prophet’s Household openly and revealing their creeds in precaution against the cruelty of the authority. Sheikh Kuleini included a number of which in Usul Kafi under the title of (Discreetness and Information), including one citing Imam Rida (P) saying, “Allah defends his pious creatures and avenges from his enemies; have you not seen what Allah did to the Family of Barmak, and how he took revenge for Abi al-Hasan (P). Descendants of al-Ash’ath were in a great danger, so Allah protected them for their loyalty to Abi al-Hasan (P). You are in Iraq, and you see the work of those Pharaohs [tyrants]. Allah has given them time. You have to be god-fearing, and not to be allured by this world. Do not be deceived by whom Allah has given time to, as if you have gotten the matter to you.”([17])

The narrations include a narration with an interrupted citation of Othman Ibn Saeed about someone who had told him. He said, “Abu Abdullah (P) said, “Remain silent, and stay at home.”

 

Third: Narrations of Fearing (Taqiyah):

If revolting against the authority is against the concept of fearing for one’s self, there are narrations that are too many such as the true narration of Ibn Abi Yaafour. He said, “I heard Aba Abdullah (P) say that fearing is the shield of the believer and it is the protecting amulet of the believer, and he is not truly a believer, he who does not practice Taqiyah.([18]) These narrations are among many that include the topic of revolting such as the true narration of Mo’ammar Ibn Khallad. He said, “I asked Aba al-Hassan about the revolt of the pious. He said, “Abu Jaafar said, “Fearing is my religion and the religion of my ancestors. There is no belief for the person who is not fearing for his life.””

Sheikh Sadouk narrated in Ikmal al-Deen and Tabarsi in A’lam al-Wara and Khazaz n Kifayat al-Athar by citing al-Hussein Ibn Khaled citing Imam al-Rida (P), he said, “There is no religion for the one who is not pious; and there is no belief for the one who is not fearing. The most noble for Allah is the most fearing for his life.” He was told, “Son of the Prophet, till when?” He said, “Until Al-Qa’em appears, who leaves fearing before our Imam Al-Qa’em appears is not one of us”([19])

In my opinion, the narration of Taqiyah does not annul the permissibility to revolt against the authority, for a number of reasons:

1-  The above discussion is that the narrations of fearing do not annul the necessity to establish the right and eradicate the wrong. We speak of revolting as a rank of implementing this duty. When there is a necessity for this, then it is possible, but this does not apply about all revolts.

2-  The revolt of Imam Hussein (P) negates the narration and the principle of fearing that is previously set. There is a prior mention of the answer to the controversy from this aspect.

3-  Fearing was made to preserve lives, honor, and money from damage and danger without justification. This is primarily a rational principle. We talked about revolt that sharia has stated and rational rationale. It was made to preserve religion, true creeds, and the message of Islam when showing it and declaring it means it will be exterminated or constrained and limited in effect. If the danger is about religion itself, and it was feared to be eliminated and vanished, there is no meaning for the stipulation of fearing as in the revolt of Imam Husayn (P). There were narrations on sacrificing souls for religion. One example is the famous will of the Prophet to Imam Ali (P). He says, “Ali, I entrust you to maintain certain qualities in yourself. O Allah, help him.The fifth is sacrificing your money and yourself for your religion.”([20]) There is a narration in Kafi citing Abi Abdullah (P). He says, “Imam Ali (P) had in his will to his companions: If there is a calamity, sacrifice with your money to preserve yourselves. If there is a catastrophe, preserve your religion with yourself. You must know that the one who loses his religion perishes. The one assaulted at war is the one whose religion is assaulted at war.”

The Fourth: Evidence to Adhering by Examination and Inspection and the Impermissibility to Revolt unless it is with Imam:

There is the true narration of al-Ais Ibn al-Qassem that was referred to in more than one location. He said, “I heard Aba Abdullah (P) saying, “Be god fearing, he is the only one who has no partner. Look at yourself! By Allah, a man would have sheep and a shepherd. If he finds a man who knows more than him about his sheep from the one he has, he would fire the old shepherd and get the man who knows more about his sheep.([21])By Allah, if one of you had two souls, he would fight with one to try with it, and he would have the other one left to do what his soul had discovered. However, a man has one soul. If he loses it, then, his remorse is gone. You are more worthy of choosing for yourself. If anyone of us comes out in revolt, look for what reason you revolt. Never say Zaid revolted. Zaid were a scholar, and he was truthful. He did not call you to support him; instead, he called you to gain the satisfaction of the Prophet’s household. If he had triumphed, he would have fulfilled his promise. He only revolted against a ruler of a society to eradicate [injustice]. The person among us o revolts today conducts mutiny for what reason and why does he call you? Is it to the satisfaction of the Prophet’s Household? We bear you witness that we do not accept it. He is disobeying us today and he has no one. If he had the banners and the flags, then, it is better for him not to hear from us.”([22])

There is the considerable narration of Aban mentioned (in page 376 of the original work) about the dialogue between Abi Jaafar al-Ahwal and Zaid the Martyr who was calling him to support him.

Another is the true narration of Abdullah Ibn al-Mughirah citing Imam Rida (P) in which he says, “Is not one of you satisfied to be at his home spending money over his family waiting for our order for a long time? If he reached our order, he was like the one who witnessed Badr with the Prophet (P). If he died while waiting, he would be like someone who would be with our Al-Qa’em (P) in his tent, just like these two [index fingers] and he brought them together. And it is not like these two [index and middle fingers] and he brought them together, as this [middle finger] is taller than the other [index finger].”([23])

In my opinion:

1-  The first narration explicitly illustrates a specific external matter. There is forbiddance from participation in this topic. Imam (P) says, “The one of us who revolts today…” and the second is about the issue of Zaid the Martyr.

2-  The purpose of the illustration of the two narrations is the prevention from revolting without taking the permission of the Imam who meets the conditions stipulated. Alternatively, perhaps the leaders of the rebellion wanting the rule to be in their hands. It was either under the pretext of being Imam al-Mahdi or the Imamate, and the like. The [Imam] who said that it is permissible to revolt stipulated the permission of the Imam and the leader of the affairs of the nation. He does not allow revolt for personal purposes.

It might be said that the first true narration indicates the opposite of what they wanted as it has included an exaggerated commendation of Zaid. If that means they endorse his revolt, then, that meant the opposite of what they wanted. It is for sure that Zaid is no special case. Endorsement arises from the fact that the revolt was in line with the teachings of the Prophet’s Household for the purposes and conditions of revolt. This is indeed a general framework.

Fifth: Evidence that itis Forbidden to Revolt before the Marks of the Appearance of Al-Qa’em happen, and Mention of Such Forbiddance:

These narrations include the considerable narration of Omar Ibn Handhala. He said, “I heard Aba Abdullah (P) saying, there are five marks before Al-Qa’em appears:The call, Sufiani, sink-holes, and killing of the Pious Soul and al-Yamani.” I said, “May I be a sacrifice for you, If someone of your household revolts before these marks, shall we revolt with him?” He said, “No.””([24])

These narrations also include, the content of the true narration of al-Ais Ibn al-Qassem previously mentioned by Abi Abdullah (P) in which at the end, it says, “Sufiani is a sufficient mark for you”.([25])

Other examples are the narrations mentioned in the second part such as the narration of Jaber and al-Husayn Ibn Khaled and Sudair.

In my opinion, the answer can be similar to what was previously mentioned that they were meant to falsify the allegations of those deceiving people under the pretext of being al-Mahdi to gather followers. The narrations were meant to introduce people to the true Mahdi and to familiarize them with the righteousness of his blessed movement. The truthful movement was meant to be segregated from the opposing movements at that time. These narrations ae not valid to negate the permissibility to revolt in the time of absence as we talk about the revolution under the obedience and Imamate of the Imam and under his flag for the purpose of preparing for the state of the right and justice by reform and establishing the right and eradicating the wrong.

 

Sixth: Evidence that the Banners [Parties] Revolting prior to the Appearance of Imam Mahdi are Dishonest:

These includethe true narration of Abi Bassir citing Abi Abdullah (P) who said, “Any banner that rises before the appearance of Al-Qa’em is raised by a tyrant worshiped without Allah”.([26])

There is also the narration of Johani citing Abi Abdullah (P) in which he says, “Any banner that rises before the appearance of Al-Qa’em is raised by a tyrant”.([27])

In my opinion, apparently, what is meant by these banners is those calling people for their Imamate and princedom and without the permission of the legal Imam. The banner would be against the banner of the legal Imam. There might be a probability for this sense. However, if revolting is by permission of the Imam or his deputy who meets the conditions of the leadership, and if it were for reform and establishing the right and eradicating the wrong, then it is not included in these narrations. This supports the mentioned narrations of Kuleini in Rawdat al-Kafi citing Abi Jaafar (P), “Anyone calling for his leadership until the imposter [Dajjal] appears will find someone to pay him allegiance. If someone raises a banner of perversion, then the leader is a tyrant.”([28]) The banner is restricted to being a case perversion.

Seventh: Prohibiting Hastiness in Revolting and the Need for Patience:

These include, the narrations of Kuleini in Rawdat al-Kafi with a citation by Abi al-Murhaf of Abi Jaafar (P) saying, “Dust falls on the one who stirs it. The fast runners are doomed.” I said, may I be your sacrifice, what are the fast runners?” He said, “Those are the hasty. They would strike the one who appears to them.” Then, he said, “Aba al-Murhaf, “Those who are deviousdo want [harm] to you, but then, Allah occupies them with something urgent to keep them busy [and away] from you.” Then, Abu Jaafar (P) hit the ground and said, “Aba al-Murhaf.” I said, “Upon your orders.” He said, “Do you see people who restrain themselves to gain His satisfaction whom Allah would not give them a safe refuge out? Indeed, By Allah, He will give them a haven to escape dilemmas.”([29])

In my opinion, the Imam wanted to reassure Abi al-Murhaf that the oppressors of the authority only harm the ones revolting against them. Hemeant in the last paragraph to refer to his companions who abided by the directions of Imams (P).

The narrations include a story by Kuleini in Kafi citing the dialogue between Imam Baqer (P) and his brother Zaid, in which he says, “Do not be underestimated by those who do not believe. They will not satisfy you instead of Allah. Therefore, do not be hasty, Allah is not hasty when his creatures are hasty. Do not precede Allah so you would be overwhelmed by calamity and then you are doomed.”([30])

These also includea narration with a citation of al-Fadel al-Kateb. He said, “I was at Abi Abdullah (P). He received the letter of Abi Muslim, and he said, “Your letter does not have an answer that was sent from us, until he said, “Allah is not hasty when the creatures are hasty. Indeed, removing a mountain from its location is easier than ousting a rule thatis still not destined to end.”([31])

There is another narration citing Imam Sadek (P) narrating the words of his ancestors. He mentioned the will of the Prophet (P) to Imam Ali (P) saying, “Ali, removing mountains is easier than removing a reign that is still not destined to end.”([32])

In Nahjul Balagha, there is a saying of Imam Ali (P), “Do not be hasty with what Allah is not hasty about. The one who dies on his bead knowing the right of his god, the right of his Prophet and his Household, died like a martyr and was rewarded by Allah.”([33])

There is also a narration of al-Moalla Ibn Khunais saying, “I carried a letter of Abdul Salam Ibn Na’im and Sudair and letters of other people to Abi Abdullah (P) until he brought a draft before the Abbasids appeared [saying] we have thought that the rule would be to you, so what do you say? He said that he [the Imam] struck the letters to the ground. He said in as he murmured an expression of discontent, I am not the Imam of those people, do they not know that the Sufiani is [to be] killed.”([34])

In my opinion, these narrations forbid hurriedness in revolting before the right time occurs by completing the prerequisites that are stipulated by the Islamic leader who meets the needed conditions.

As for the last one, it removes the suspicion of those optimistic that Imam Sadek (P) would hold the rule when he establishes the government of Islam. Imam Sadek (P) corrects them by saying that he is not the ruler when he mentions, “I am not those people’s Imam”. He might wanted to refer to the Abbasid armies as they do not believe he is the Imam. Albeit, they appeared and revolted under the title of the persecution against the Prophet’s Household (P). He might have meant Sudair and the like who do not abide by the instructions of Imam (P). A similar narration is by Kashshi. By a citation of Abdul Hamid Ibn Abi al-Dailam. He said, “I was at Abi Abdullah’s place so he got a letter of Abdul-Salam Ibn Abdurrahman Ibn Na’im and the letter of al-Faidh Ibn al-Mokhtar and Suleiman Ibn Khaled who told him that Kufa was vacant without a ruler, and that if he ordered them to take it they would. When he read their letters, he threw it. Then he said, “I am not the Imam of those people. Do they not know that their companion is Sufiani”?([35])

The Eighth: Evidence of Praising Isolation from People:

In al-Khisal citing Ali Ibn Mahzayar, he said “There will be a time for people when being sound is in ten parts, nine of which are in being secluded from people and the tenth would be in silence.”([36])

In the will of Imam Musa Ibn Jaafar (P) to Hisham Ibn al-Hakam, he says, “Hisham, patience to seclusion is a mark of strength of mind. Whomever is rational by the will of Allah would seclude himself from the people of this world and the ones wanting it. The man would want what Allah wants and he would feel comforted when being alone and Allah would be his companion in his loneliness”.([37])

In Amali al-Sadouk, there is a citation of Imam Sadek (P) saying, “If you were able to be unknown so do it, and do not care if people do not praise you. It is fine if people condemn you while Allah praises you”.([38])

In Nahjul Balagha, Imam Ali (P) is cited saying, “Blessed is the one who remains at home, eats his meals, does what satisfies Allah, and cries over his sin. He would be busy with himself, and people would rest from him”.([39])

In my opinion, these narrations are interpreted in more than one sense that does not juxtapose with the permission to revolt against the oppressing authority, including:

1-  Being far from the people’s bad manners, their evil, and oppression, and refraining from committing their sins. A person is not meant to boycott them and be isolated from them. This is similar to the saying, “Be with them, and do not be one of them”.

2-  They might call for being secluded from the people to whom preaching, guidance and advice is useless. Imam Sadek (P) said, “What would stop you if you hear about a man of you what you hate and what he does to harm us to go to him, scold him, reproach him and to speak eloquently to that person.” I said, “May I be your sacrifice, then they would not accept from us.” He said, “Then, avoid them and refrain from sitting in their gatherings.”([40])

3-  They indicate that the perverting seditions should be left and that the wrongful calls and leaders should be abandoned no matter how the temporary seductions wave at the person.

4-  These narrations probably provoke the one who cannot perform his job if he blends in with the community to be isolated, in order not to be underperforming regarding his duties. This sense was referred to in the narration of Imam Sadek (P). He said, “If you can remain at home, do it. Otherwise, when you leave, you must not gossip, lie, envy, show off, pretend nor flatter. The hermitage of the Muslim is his home. He keeps himself in it with his sight, tongue and sexual desire.”([41])

Therefore, the narrations of isolation are not meant to release people of performing social duties like ordering the right and eradicating the wrong, Friday Prayer, collective prayer, etc. There are also quite many rewarded deeds encouraged to do like visiting, checking on relatives and performing religious rituals. Indeed, there are not to be used as an excuse not to preform duties. The Commander of the Faithful issued some of these [orders]. We notice in his numerous sermons the provocation for Jihad and denouncement of laziness. We do not see in his two instructions any opposition or negation. Therefore, Imam Ali (P) condemned those refraining from fighting with him by saying, “They let the right down and did not support the wrong”.([42])

On the contrary, in some narrations, there was a condemnation of isolation as it prevents people from performing this duty. Rawandi narrated with a citation of Imam Musa Ibn Jaafar mentioning the words of his forefathers until he reached Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (P). He said, “The Prophet (P) used to come to the people of Suffah [Hermits who used to stay at the back of the Prophet’s mosque in Madina]. They were the guests of the Prophet (P) – until he said- Saad Ibn Ashajj stood and said, “Allah is my witness and I bear the Prophet (P) as a witness in addition to all the people who are present that I forbid myself to sleep at night. The Prophet (P) said, “You did not do anything. How do you establish the right and eradicate the wrong if you do not mix with people? Wilderness after settling in a sedentary place will be ingratitude to the grace.”([43])

Summary:

The conclusion of investigation in such groups of narrations is that they are either weak in citation or that the prevention in them is particular to some cases such as revolting by armed force without having the permission of Imam or without proof and completion of prerequisites. Alternatively, the people mentioned in the narrations and called for revolt do not deserve. Sometimes the ban is to stop a potential involvement in sedition and getting devastated by it, and the like. Some of them are issued to raise awareness on the matter of Imam Mahdi and distinguishes those who falsely pretend to be the awaited Mahdi and the like. They are not meant to prescribe the religious assignment. Some are issued to state that none of the revolutions before Al-Qa’em do not succeed in accomplishing their objectives in full. They do not prevail right and justice across Earth. That would not influence the legitimacy of the revolution and its righteousness in addition to accomplishing other objectives.

Therefore, one cannot say that it [the revolt] is opposite to the necessity to establish the religion and the sharia law of the Master of the Messengers (P) or establishing the right and eradicating the wrong with its underlying levels that include objection, mutiny and revolting against the oppressing authority.

Indeed, we can never overlook the impact of fabrication and addition of traditions that the supporters of the authority did on a wide basis to brainwash people and spread the culture of despair, frustration, and surrender to rulers. There are many narrations in the “Sihah” books [six books compiled by major Mainstream Muslim scholars gathering the traditions of the Prophet (P)] of mainstream Muslims in this regard. The Two Sheikhs([44]) said citing Ibn Abbas who cited the Prophet (P) who said, “Whoever sees from his prince something he hates, let him be patient with it. He who parts the group and dies would die like a Jahili (Pre-Islamic pagan), and it Muslim’s version: it is a Jahili death.”

In my opinion, the narration obliges to obey princes whether they were military or administrative leaders and maybe it is true, and it probably means the princes appointed by the religious Islamic leader. However, the oppressing rulers channel it to their benefits to falsify and forge its meaning.

They([45]) said that the Prophet (P) said, “You will face a self-seeking after me, so be patient in order to meet me, and a Muslim’s meal is on the fountain [in heaven]”

In my opinion, the narration might be interpreted in a way that when you cannot change, and not absolutely, this is required. That way it does not juxtapose with the necessity to change while being able to do so.

Abu Zahra in his book “Islamic Doctrines” narrated from the two “Sahih” books of the Prophet’s tradition that he (P) said, “Whomever has a leader, and he sees him disobeying Allah, he should hate the sin but not disobey him”.([46]) In “Sahih Muslim”, he says, “The unjust Imams are those you hate and they hate you and those are the people whomyou curse and whocurse you.” They said that they asked the Prophet if we leave them for that. The Prophet said, “No. do not as long as they pray your prayer. However, whomever has a leader and he sees him disobeying Allah, he should hate the sin but not disobey him.”([47])

Muslim([48]) cited Huthaifa Ibn al-Yaman in a dialogue with the Prophet (P) saying, “There are after me Imams who do not follow my enlightenment and do not follow my Sunnah. There will be leaders who are men having in their heart the hearts of devils in a human body.” Huthaifa said, “I said, “What do I do Messenger of Allah if I lived to see that?” He said, “You listen and obey the prince even if he hits your [back] and takes your money. Listen and obey”.

In my opinion, the narration proposes the worst forms of oppression and corruption to tame people to surrendering to anything issued by those authorities.

He [Muslim] cited al-Hassan al-Bassri saying, “The Umayyad kings must be obeyed even if they oppressed and committed injustice. Allah does good more than they do evil”.([49])

Whatever the case might be, there are narrations that are either interpreted in their true meaning like the ones we mentioned, or they are rejected. Proving them false does not need a lot of discussion as they oppose the sharia standards; and those standards were listed in the narrations mentioned in the same books. The Two Sheikhs([50]) narrated a tradition of the Prophet (P) with a similar structure. Bukhari narrates Abdullah Ibn Omar citing the Prophet (P) that he said, “A Muslim should listen and obey what he likes and hates if he is not ordered to disobey [Allah]. If he is ordered to disobey then he should not listen nor obey”.

Muslim([51]) narrated also about the Prophet (P), “Obedience is in righteousness”.

He also narrated([52]) citing Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-Aas saying that Muawiyah said, “He was silent for a while… then he said, “Obey him when it is the obedience of Allah, and disobey him when he disobeys Allah and similar cases”.

A Final Word:

Doubtlessly, such topics need a moredetailed discussion. We just brought them up and expressed our perspectives on them to raise awareness among the people of the nation for their responsibility towards this great duty. The restrains of lethargy must be removed and the shackles of impotence and underperformance should be broken.People have been imprisoned in carelessness and neglect for ages.

At the end of this deliberation, we present the words of late Sheikh Montazari in calling the scholars and religious centers (Hawza) for revival. He said, “How can the prominent scholars tend to secondary matters and consider them surrogate matters that the sharia does not allow leaving, like preserving the money of the young or of the absent, for example, and they do not care for the entity of Islam and capabilities and affairs of Muslims? How can they overlook maintaining order, capacities and potentials of Muslims? Further, do they consider attending to them against the concept of taking precautions? Then, they transform them and delegate their matters to people who know nothing about Islam and to the people who have no commitment towards Islam, showing no piousness.

Yes, apparently, that was not because they [the scholars] underperformed their duties at first. They find themselves jailed in the corners and dungeons of [religious] schools. They have been secluded from politics for so many long centuries. That got them into despair of restoring their rule. Also, this meant they would not be led to the prerequisites and requirements of ruling. With time, they neglected those matters and were forcefully overlooked by the conspiracies of colonization, too”.([53])

In my opinion, this excuse is an insufficient justification, as they have to perform their role and bear their responsibilities in enlightening the nation. As for the potential ability of achieving results and yielding outcomes is not our job, but it is left to [Allah] the manager of [all] affairs.

However, we should take note that theoretical talk and enthusiasm alone should not be enough for pushing towards establishing the government of Islam. Islamists should be trusted to their ability to embody the project of Islam in terms of justice, integrity, manners, principals, and sublimity. Otherwise, the danger would be more with the mutation of the image of Islam and repelling people away from it. This would lead to destroying what generations of missionary scholars have built. Each one of us starts out of his own experience and the resulting impact of events and behaviors.

However, as this condition is a needed condition and not a condition of necessity, scholars must develop such qualified leadership to control the affairs of the blessed state of Islam. The society should be educated on the great responsibility. All of this is achieved by the activation of the duty of establishing the right and eradicating the wrong according to the various ranks and mechanisms. May Allah be our supporter.

(O Allah! We ask from you an honorable state in which you honor Islam and Muslims, and humiliate hypocrisy and hypocrites. In this state, make us callers to your obedience and leaders to your path. By it, grant us the dignity of this world and the afterlife.”

 

 

 

 

 

 



([1]) They were mentioned by the writer of Wasail in Chapter 13, of Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy. The writer of al-Mustadrak mentioned another group in chapter 12 of the Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy in the Book of Jihad. A number of these narrations were mentioned in several aspects and in several books according to the purpose and subject of the book, ex: Studies on the Leadership of the Scholar for Sheikh Montazari: 1/205-256, and the Book of Ordering the Right and Eradicating the Wrong for Sheikh Nouri Hatem al-Sa’idi: 125-143. Sayyed Shahid Sadr Thani mentioned a number of narrations on the title of “Resolving the Issue of Juxtaposition between the Evidence on the Necessity of Social Work including Jihad and Establishing the Right and Eradicating the Wrong and the Evidence to Isolation and Fearing in the Time of Absence (History of the Greater Absence: 352).

([2]) Wasail Shia: 11/36; Book of Jihad; Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy; Chapter 13; Section 2.

([3]) Mustadrak al-Wasail: Volume 11; P: 37; Section 9.

([4]) Studies on the Leadership of the Scholar: 1/223.

([5]) Mustadrak al-Wasail: Volume 11; Page: 35, Section 5; citing al-Ghaiba al-Nu’mani. P: 194; Chapter 11; Section 2.

([6]) Wasail Shia: Volume 11; P: 35; Section 1.

([7]) Studies on the Leadership of the Scholar for Sheikh Montazari: 1/225.

([8]) Ibid: 1/227.

([9]) Mustadrak Wasail Shia; Volume 11; Page: 36; Section: 3.

([10])Mustadrak Wasail Shia: Volume 11; Page: 39; Section 14.

([11]) Mustadrak Wasail Shia: Volume 11; Page: 40; Section 15.

([12]) Mustadrak Wasail Shia: Volume 11; Page: 41; Section 16.

([13]) Mustadrak Wasail Shia: Volume 11; Page, 35; Section 5.

([14]) Tanqeeh al-Maqal: 2/8.

([15]) Tanqeeh al-Maqal: 2/8.

([16]) Kafi: 2/242; The Book of Belief and Disbelief; Chapter of Limited Number of Believers; Section 4.

([17]) And the following you find them in Wasail Shia: Chapters of Order and Forbiddance; Chapter 34; Section: 1, 5.

([18]) And the following you find them in Wasail Shia: Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy; Chapter 13; Section: 6, 7.

([19]) Wasail Shia: 11/34; Section: 1, 2, 3.

([20]) The narration and the following you find them in Wasail Shia: 11/450. Chapters of Order and Forbiddance; Chapter 22; Section: 2, 5.

([21]) The true narration is explicit that the knowledge is required for the leader of the nation and it is in the proper management of the affairs of the nation in addition to knowledge and experience in their affairs as well as protecting people’s interests. The knowledge of jurisprudence and the creeds is part of it or it is a prerequisite.

([22]) Wasail Shia: Book of Jihad; Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy; Chapter 13; Section 1.

([23]) Wasail Shia: Book of Jihad; Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy; Chapter 12; Section 5.

([24]) Kafi: 8/310; Section: 483.

([25]) It is worth noting to say, we used to hear someone interpreting Sufiani as Soviet meaning the USSR when it was a great power against NATO. I found this probability presented by Sheikh Montazari. He said, “This word might be read with a T instead of N, and it might be referred to by the international Marxist revolution. However, it might not be probable as apparently it is a person and not a way of thinking. His name was mentioned as Othman Ibn Anbasa.” Studies on the Leadership of the Scholar: 1/236.

([26]) Wasail Shia: Chapter: 11/37; Section 6.

([27]) Mustadrak al-Wasail: Chapter 11 and 34; Chapters of Jihad against the Enemy; Chapter 12: Section 1.

([28]) Kafi: 8/296; Rawdah, Section: 456.

([29]) Wasail Shia: 11; Page: 36; Section: 4 in addition to what was in Rawdat al-Kafi. The fast runners are the galloping horses.

([30]) Usul Kafi: 1/356; Book of Evidence (Hujja); Chapter of What Separates the Claim of the Righteous and the Vicious; Section 16.

([31]) Wasail Shia: 11/ Page: 37, Section 5.

([32]) Wasail Shia: 11/38; Section 9.

([33]) Wasail Shia: 11/40; Section 15.

([34]) Wasail Shia: 11/38; Section 8.

([35]) Rijal al-Kashshi: 353.

([36]) Khisal: 437; Chapter of Companionship; Section: 24..

([37]) Tuhaf Uqul: 378.

([38]) Amali Sadouk: 531; Majlis 95; Section 2.

([39]) Nahjul Balagha: 255; Sermon No (176).

([40]) Wasail Shia: Chapters of Order and Forbiddance; Chapter 7; Section 3.

([41]) Tuhaf Uqul: 270.

([42]) Nahjul Balagha: Volume 5; Page: 5; Saying (18).

([43]) Mustadrak al-Wasail: 12/183; Citing the Stories (Nawader) al-Rawandi; 25.

([44]) Bukhari: 9/59; Muslim 6/21.

([45]) Bukhari: 9/60; Muslim 6/19.

([46]) Islamic Doctrines: 158.

([47]) Muslim: 6/24.

([48]) Muslim: 6/20.

([49]) Shia and Rulers: 28.

([50]) Bukhari: 9/78; Muslim: 6/15.

([51]) Muslim: 6/16.

([52]) Muslim: 6/18.

([53]) Studies on the Leadership of the Scholar: 1/242.