THE MUSLIM PERSONALITY

|   |   times read : 17
Font size: Decrease font Enlarge font

 THE MUSLIM PERSONALITY

 I seek Allah’s protection against Satan, the accursed

 In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent and All-merciful

All praise be to Allah Who is alone worthy of all praise as much as it should be. I seek His protection against the evil of my self, for a human soul is certainly prone to evil, unless my Lord do bestow His Mercy. 1 also seek His protection against Satan who always tries to increase my sins. And I seek my Lord’s safeguard against every dissolute power, unjust sovereign and insuperable enemy.

O Allah: set right for me my religion, for it is the preserving tie of my affair; set right for me my hereafter, for it is the abode of my permanent lodging, and to it, I flee from the neighborhood of the vile. Make life an increase for me in every good; and make death an ease for me from every evil!

O Allah, bless Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and the completion of the number of the envoys; and bless his Household-the good and pure; and bless his Companions the distinguished.

DAILY PRESENTATION OF OUR DEEDS BEFORE IMAM ALMAHDI

Imam al-Mahdi has many complaints against his followers (Shiah) due to which they are deprived of the honor of visiting him and enjoying the blessings of his advent. Yet, this does not mean that he is not grieved by the non-Shiah whose misfortunes are logically more terrible than the Shiah’s. However, the Shiah must undertake private responsibilities in addition to the general because they are subjected to Imam al-Mahdi’s additional custody for their being the group who believe in his divinely commissioned leadership, are loyal to him and shall precede others in supporting him. This is just like a father who reproaches, scolds and even disciplines his son when a wrongdoing is committed while he does not care, in the same degree, when anyone else commits the same wrongdoing. Of course, this procedure is resulted from the father’s feeling of responsibility towards his son. In the same way, Imam al-Mahdi encompasses his Shiah with special education and additional custody. On the basis of Imam alMahdi’s responsibility towards the Shiah, he always attracts their attentions to their wrongdoings and acts of deviation as he reviews his followers’ deeds day by day or, at least, weak by weak.

 

Ya’qoub ibn Shu’ayb narrated that he asked Imam al-Sadiq about the exegesis of Almighty Allah’s saying, “And say: Work (righteousness); soon will Allah observe your work, and His Messenger, and the Believers. 9/105” The Imam answered, “The believers are the Imams.” [1]

Other narrations have confirmed that the deeds of the people are presented before the Holy Prophet and the Imams every Thursday night; therefore, one must be ashamed of showing the Holy Prophet ill deeds because he will be certainly upset. In the same way, you will make him happy if you show him good deeds. [2]

 When one of his followers asked Imam al-Ridha to pray to Almighty Allah for the good of them, he answered, “Verily, I am presenting your deeds before Almighty Allah day by day.” [3]

Because Imam al-Mahdi is our leader in this age, our deeds are certainly presented before him day by day.

IMAM AL-MAHDI COMPLAINS AT OUR WITHDRAWAL FROM THE ACTUAL QUALITIES

Imam al-Mahdi’s first complaint that is suitable to be presented on this day of the anniversary of Imam Ali’s birth, which is in fact a day of pleasure and delight not only for the Shiah but also for the Muslims and every humankind that seeks justice, equity, elevation and purity-the features that were excellently present in the character of Imam Ali. Nevertheless, the Shiah are worthier of celebrating this anniversary than anyone else. Let us therefore present this complaint on behalf of Imam al-Mahdi who, in his second blessed dispatch to Shaykh al-Mufid, said, “If our Shiah (followers) are guided by Almighty Allah to taking upon themselves the acts of obedience to Him with wholehearted conformity on fulfilling‘ their covenants, the blessings of meeting us will not be delayed, and the happiness of witnessing us with thorough and honest recognition will be accelerated to them. Nothing is detaining them from meeting us save their ill deeds that we discommend and do not want them to do and which are presented before us. It is Allah alone whose help can be sought and He is sufficient for us and most excellent is He in Whom we trust.” [4]

In his first dispatch to Shaykh al-Mufid, Imam al-Mahdi says, “Verily, we are fully informed about all your news and thus nothing of your acts is absent from us. We also have full awareness with the humility that has befallen you since most of you committed the acts from which the past virtuous generations abstained. Also, most of you have flung their covenant with Allah behind their backs as if they did not know.” [5] Let us now display the qualities of a genuine Shiite that Imam al-Mahdi complains that we have kept ourselves away from them causing ourselves to be deprived of the grace of meeting him and the blessings of his advent. Only because of having such qualities, the Shiite have deserved the virtues and high ranks in the sight of Almighty Allah that will be soon presented before the gentle reader who will also identify the scope of our meeting the regulations of being genuine Shiite.

 

Seemingly, the title of ‘Shiite’ is unfortunately applicable to a very few individuals among the Shiah. In this regard, Almighty Allah says, “And those Foremost (in Faith) will be Foremost (in the Hereafter). These will be those Nearest to Allah; in Gardens of Bliss: a number of people from those of old; and a few from those of later times. 56/10-14”

 

 On the other hand, one must not be displeased and desperate because perfection can be attained step by step. It has been narrated that when Almighty Allah revealed the holy verse, “O ye who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared, 3/102" the Holy Prophet’s companions were frustrated and thus they wept for they knew that none can fear Allah as exactly as He should be feared. Answering them, Almighty Allah revealed the holy verse, “So fear Allah as much as ye can. 64/16” If one fears and works for Almighty Allah as much as he can, he will be qualified to attain an upper rank and so on until one can fear Almighty Allah as exactly as He should be feared.

 

 

 

ADDRESSES ARE NOT FOR THE SHIAH ALONE

 The presentation of the qualities of a genuine Shiite is not addressed to the Shiah alone; rather the Muslims and all human beings are also concerned. The Shiah are informed about these qualities of genuineness in order that they will observe their conducts and evaluate their deeds on an actual criterion and judge whether they are actual Shiite individuals who deserve such elevated ranks or not. The non-Shiah Muslims are informed about these qualities in order that they will recognize the actual qualities of the Shiah and then they will judge whether they have the right to disagree with, revile at, break relations with them and even deem them as atheists or not.

 

The non-Muslims should also be informed about these qualities for the reason that they have initiated a cultural conflict against the Muslims and adopted the deformation of the Muslim’s picture as the focal weapon in this clash. Accordingly, our most important function for facing this conflict has been the presentation of the constituents of the Muslim’s genuine picture that has been demonstrated and best represented by the Ahl al-Bayt through their lives. Because Imam Ali is the head of the Ahl al-Bayt, Shiism has been the spirit and core of Islam as has been confirmed by the Holy Prophet, whose sayings in this regard will be soon presented, and understood by his grand companions, such as Salman, Abu-Tharr, al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Ammar ibn Yasir, Dhu’l-Shahadatayn, Ibn al-Tayhan, Abu-Ayyoub al-Ansari, Khalid ibn Sa’eed ibn al-Aas and many others most of whom were martyred for the sake of this principle.

 

NARRATIONS ABOUT THE MERITS OF IMAM ALI’S SHIAH

 

Before answering the question about the qualities of a Shiite, it seems proper to introduce some narrations concerning the merits and high ranks of the Shiah of Imam Ali as quoted from both Sunni and Shiite reference books of Hadith:

Regarding Almighty Allah’s saying, “Those who have faith and do righteous deeds; they are the best of creatures. Their reward is with Allah: Gardens of Eternity, beneath which rivers flow; they will dwell therein for ever; Allah well pleased with them, and they with Him: all this for such as fear their Lord and Cherisher. 98/7-8,” Abu-Hurayrah (narrated that the Holy Prophet) said, “Are you surprised at the angels’ elevated ranks in the sight of Almighty Allah? I swear by Him Who prevails on my soul that the rank of the faithful believer shall be, on the Resurrection Day, more elevated than the angels’. To prove it, recite Almighty Allah’s saying, “Those who have faith and do righteous deeds; they are the best of creatures. 98/7” [6]

 

 It has been narrated that Jabir ibn Abdullah said: We were, once, sitting with the Holy Prophet when Ali came towards us. Seeing him, the Holy Prophet said, “I swear by Him Who prevails on my soul that this Ali and his Shiah shall be the winners.” Soon after that, the following holy verse was revealed to him, “Those who have faith and do righteous deeds; they are the best of creatures. 98/7” After that incident, the companions of the Holy Prophet used to say, “Here comes the best of creatures,” whenever they saw Ali. [7]

 

Abdullah ibn Abbas also narrated that when the holy verse involved was revealed, the Holy Prophet said to Ali, “These are your Shiah and you. On the Resurrection Day, your Shiah and you shall be satisfied and pleased, while your enemy shall be annoyed and stiff-necked.” [8]

 

It has been also narrated that the Holy Prophet said to Imam Ali, “Is it pleasant for you to know that you shall be with me in Paradise? Al-Hasan and al-husayn and our offspring shall be behind us. Our wives shall be behind our offspring. And our Shiah shall be on our right and left sides.” [9]

To realize the qualities of genuine Shiites is to have in mind each and every good quality that has been praised and urged by Almighty Allah and to reject every wrongdoing and bad characteristic that He has disliked. On this account, it is unfeasible to mention all the qualities involved in a single lecture; therefore, the gentle readers may kindly refer to the following books for finding out about all the qualities that must be enjoyed by the genuine Shiah: Sifat aI-Shiah and Thawab aI-A’man wa ‘Iqab aI-A’mal by Shaykh al-Saduq; Wasaa’il al-shiah, vol. 8 and 11, Chapters: Jihad al-Nafs, a1Amru bi’l-Ma’rouf wa’I-Nahyu ‘Ani’l-Mukar, and Aadab al’Isbrah; and Tubaf al-’Uqou1 by Ibn Shu’bah al-Harrani.

 

It is also sufficient to recite Imam Ali’s famous sermon on the qualities of the pious where the qualities of his Shiah are totally included. [10] There is also a famous, yet neglected by the majority, prolonged epistle written by Imam al-Sadiq and addressed to the Shiah ordering them to consider carefully, preserve and apply its contents to their conducts. Complying with the Imam’s direction, the past generations of the Shiah used to hang this epistle in the prayer-places in their houses so that they would look in it whenever they performed their prayers. [11] Thus did the past generations! They used to watch their manners and weigh their deeds in the light of the course defined by the Ahl al-Bayt. This epistle is recorded in alKulayni's Rawdhat al-Kafi, 325-326.

 

 

 

AXES OF THE FAITHFUL BELIEVERS’ QUALITIES

 

Through investigating the reference books of Hadith, the qualities of the believers can be classified into three groups; (1) the qualities concerning one's relationship with Almighty Allah, (2) the qualities concerning one’s relationship with himself and (3) the qualities concerning one’s relationship with the others.

 

As a matter of fact, in this classification, the technical side only has been taken in consideration. However, a genuine believer must arrange all his relations and manners to be well-matched to the decrees of Almighty Allah. In plain words, a faithful believer is at all times with Almighty Allah. [12]

 

FIRST AXIS:

 

RELATIONSHIP WITH ALMIGHTY ALLAH

 

 

(1) THE RECOGNITION OF ALLAH; THE BASIS OF THE RELIGION

The recognition of Almighty Allah is the origin and basis of the religion. [13] Confirming this fact, Imam Ali says, “The first of the religion is the recognition of it.” The basis of the recognition of Almighty Allah can be rational as extracted from logical proofs [14] that are fundamental in attaining the recognition of Almighty Allah even if they would be simplified and congruent to the naive nature of human beings [15]because doctrines must be adopted on the strength of proofs and evidences. Besides, the recognition of Almighty Allah can be heartily sentimental. According to narrations, [16]such as, “The spiritual recognition is superior to the reasonable,” the sentimental recognition is superior to the rational as is indicated in Almighty Allah’s saying, “Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things? 41/53”

 

 

 

Pondering over the Holy Quran is the best source of the sentimental recognition. The second source that helps attain the sentimental recognition is the Supplications and narrations of the Ah] al-Bayt, especially the Morning Supplication (Du’aa aL-Sabah), the Supplication of Kumayl, Imam al-Husayn’s Supplication on the Arafah Day, the Supplication of Abu-Hamzah al-Thamali and the Whispered Prayer of the recognizant (Munajat aI-‘Arifeem as well as all the fifteen Whispered Prayers. A bigger advantage can be obtained if the ideas and explanations of the honest scholars are added.

 

THE MERIT OF THE RECOGNITION OF ALMIGHTY ALLAH

About the merits of the recognition of Almighty Allah, [17] Imam al-Sadiq in reported to have said. 'If people realize the merits of the recognition of Allah. they will never strain their eyes in longing for the splendor and bliss of the life in this world that Allah has given for enjoyment to the enemies, they will regard this world as more insignificant than whatever they trample underfoot and they will enjoy and take pleasure in the recognition of Almighty Allah as if they are living in the gardens of Paradise with the saints of Allah. The recognition of Allah is entertaining in all gloominess, sociable in all loneliness, luminous in all darkness, power in all weaknesses and remedy from all maladies. Earlier than you came peoples whom were massacred, burnt and sawed until the earth became strait to them notwithstanding its spaciousness; nevertheless, they never gave up their situations although they had not harmed those who wronged them. Rather they did not take vengeance on them for aught except that they believed in Allah-the Mighty and Praised. You should thus ask your Lord to grant you their ranks and should also tolerate the vicissitudes of your time so that you may catch those peoples’ ranks.”

 

 (2) ACCEPTANCE OF DEEDS IS DEPENDENT UPON THE LOYALTY TO THE AHL AL-BAYT

Almighty Allah has fixed the wage of the Divine Mission as the love for, the loyalty to and the recognition of the Ahl al-Bayt. In this respect, Almighty Allah says, “Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives. 42/23” Because they are the means to the Divine bestowal, all the deeds are accepted through them. If one cannot assimilate this fact claiming that the Divine bestowal does not require any means, the matter can be seen from the angle of the legislation. [18] The Ahl al-Bayt is the means for conveying the religious laws to the beings while Almighty Allah is absolutely capable of conveying the laws without a means. The same thing is applicable to the creational bestowal. To recognize the actual standing of the Ahl al-Bayt, it is advised to read the alZiyarab aI-Jami’ab aI-Kabirab (the Major Comprehensive Ziyarah), which is reported from Imam al-Hadi and regarded as the most authenticated in contents and series of relators. [19]

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said, “Anyone who loves us shall be in the company of us on the Resurrection Day. I swear by Allah that if one observes fasting throughout days of his life and do acts of worship throughout nights of his life but he meets Almighty Allah, on the Resurrection Day, without having the love for us, Allah shall be unpleased or discontented with him.” [20]

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq also said that Imam Ali used to say, “This world is worthless for everybody except two categories; one is he who day by day becomes more decent and the other is he who attains his good end through repentance. Yet, repentance is not that easy. I swear by Allah that if a man prostrates himself (to Almighty Allah) so continually that his neck is about to be severed, none of his deeds shall be accepted by Almighty Allah unless he confesses and acts upon the (divinely commissioned) loyalty to us-the Ahl al-Bayt.” [21]

 

 

 

It is unnecessary to repeat the confirmation that the emotional love for the Ahl al-Bayt is not sufficient for attaining the divinely commissioned loyalty to them; [22] rather there must be an actual love that requires following their examples and obeying their instructions. In this regard Imam al-Sadiq says:

 

 

 

"You disobey the Lord and in the meantime show love to Him

 

This is extremely awkward deed

 

Had your love been true, you would have obeyed Him

 

A lover is always obedient to his beloved! ”

 

He is also reported to have said, “I swear by Allah that I am

 

the imam of him who obeys me only; I am surely not the

 

Imam of those who disobey me. Almighty Allah shall never make them in the company of me.” [23]

 

 

 

 

 

(3) FAITH IS WORTHLESS UNLESS THERE IS BELIEF AND PRACTICE

 

 

 

The holy verse, “Those who believe in the unseen, 2/3” is comprehensive to all the true beliefs of Islam the belief in which is one of the essential pillars of Islam. The Holy Quran has also praised the believers in the true beliefs that comprise the belief in Almighty Allah, the angels, the Prophets and the Messengers as well as the belief that death, the grave interrogation, the Resurrection, the Judgment are all true. This belief encourages on and pushes towards acting good deeds. In this respect, the Holy Quran says, “To Him do ascend the good words; and the good deeds, lift them up. 35/10” It is then impracticable to believe in all these things but not to act for them. Naturally, when a danger is anticipated, procedures of protection will be taken so as to achieve salvation. Hence, faith is meaningless unless it is practiced. From this cause, Imam al-Sadiq said, “Faith is worthless unless there is practice, which is a part of faith. Faith likewise cannot be constant unless it is practices.” [24]

 

 

 

Belief in the unseen is one of the basic differences between the West and us. They believe in the tangibles and work for attaining their sensual pleasures that originates selfishness, arrogance, wronging, greed, envy, stinginess and many alike vicious features that have manifestly been influential on their relationships with the other peoples.

 

 

 

A HADITH COMPRISING ALL THE BELIEFS

 

 

 

Ali bin Ahmed bin Musa ad-Daqqaq and Ali bin Abdullah al-Warraq narrated to us from Muhammad bin Harun as-Sufi from Abu Turab Ubaidullah bin Musa al-Huyani that AbdulAzheem al-Hasani related: I visited my master Ali bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Musa bin Ja’far. When his eyes fell on me, he said: “Welcome, O Abu al-Qasim, you are surely our disciple.” “O son of the Messenger of Allah,’ I said, “I want to

 

 

 

 

 

provide my beliefs before you. If they are right, I will maintain until I meet Allah. Powerful and Majestic is He.” “Well,” said the Imam ‘show me.” I began, “Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, is One. There is nothing like Him. He is out of the two edges-the edge of neutralization and the edge of anthropomorphism.[25]  He is not corporeality, image, accident, or essence. He is the Maker of the corporalities, the Former of the images, and the Creator of the accidents and the essences. He is the Lord, the Possessor, the Maker, and the Producer of everything. He is All-wise; He neither does the ugly nor does He break the obligatory. I also believe that Muhammad is His servant and messenger as well as the seal of the prophets. No prophet will come forth after him up to the Day of Resurrection. His code is the seal of codes. No code will be enacted after his code up to the Day of Resurrection. I also believe that the Imams, successors, and lawful leaders after him are Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, al-Hasan, al-Hussein, Ali bin al-Hussein, Muhammad bin Ali, Ja’far bin Muhammad, Musa bin Ja’far, Ali bin Musa, Muhammad bin Ali, and you-my master respectively.”

 

 

 

The Imam said: “After me, my son al-Hasan will come. What will people do with his successor?” “What is that, master?” I asked.

 

 

 

Imam al-Hadi answered: “His appearance will not be seen and his name cannot be mentioned until he comes forth to fill in the earth with justice and fairness in the same way as it would be filled with wrong and injustice.”

 

 

 

“I submit to this,” I said, “I also declare that the follower of the Imams is surely the disciple of Allah, their enemy is surely the enemy of Allah, the obedience to them is surely the obedience to Allah, and the disobedience to them is surely the disobedience to Allah.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I declare that the Prophet’s Midnight Ascension is right, the tomb interrogation is right, Paradise is right, Hell is right, the Path is right, the Balance is right, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour of Doom and that Allah will raise every one from the graves. I declare that the obligatory religious duties, after the (obligatory) loyalty to the Imams, are the prayer, the Zakat (Obligatory payment on certain kinds of property), the fasting, the Hajj (Obligatory pilgrimage to the Holy Ka’bah), the jihad, the enjoinment of good, the forbiddance of evil, and the keeping of the parents’ rights. This has been my religion, belief, and faith.” Ali bin Muhammad said: “O Abu al-Qasim, this is, by Allah, the very religion that Allah has accepted for His servants; therefore, you should keep it. Allah may strengthen your faith by the true Words in this world and in the life to come.” [26]

 

 

 

(4) PERFORMANCE OF THE RELIGIOUS OBLIGATIONS

 

 

 

The performance of the religious obligations, such as the prayer, fasting, Khums, Zakat and Hajj is a significant axis of faith. Imam al-Ridha is reported to have said, “Our Shiah are those who offer the prayers, defray the Zakat, perform the hajj to the Holy House of Allah, fast during the month of Ramadhan, declare their loyalty to the Prophet’s household, and declare their disavowal of the enemies of the Prophet’s household.” [27]

 

 

 

Jabir al-Ju’fi narrated that Imam al-Baqir addressed him, “O Jabir, do you think that it is sufficient for those who claim being Shiah to say that they cherish us; the Prophet’s household?

 

 

 

By Allah I swear, our Shiah are only those who fear and obey Allah. Their signs are modesty, submission, fulfillment of the trusts, very much reference to Allah, fasting, offering prayers,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

piety to (their) parents, aiding the neighbors especially the poor, the destitute, the indebted, and the orphans, truth, reciting the Quran, and avoiding mentioning people except for praising. In addition, they are the most trustful of the people of their tribes. [28]

 

 

 

Jabir said: O son of Allah’s Messenger, we do not know anyone who bears such characters.

 

 

 

The Imam said: No, Jabir. Do not misunderstand the matter. It is enough for a man to claim that he loves and follows Ali. If he claims that he loves the Prophet who is preferable to Ali but he does not follow his traditions and does not act upon his instructions, such claim of love will be definitely useless. Hence, you should fear Allah and work for the cause of obtaining that which He has in possession. There is no relation between Allah and anybody. The most favorable and honorable servants of Allah are the most God-fearing and pious.

 

 

 

O Jabir, the only means through which a servant seeks to gain Allah’s favor is the obedience to Him. We-the Prophet’s Household=do not carry a patent for saving from Hell. [29]  Likewise, none of you has a claim against Allah. He who obeys Allah is only our disciple and whoever disobeys Him is our enemy. The loyalty to us cannot be gained except by means of diligent work and piety.  [30]

 

 

 

When the Prophet conquered Makkah, he stood on the Safa (height) and said: O sons of Hashim and sons of AbdulMuttalib, I am the messenger of Allah to all of you. I feel pity for you. Do not depend on the fact that Muhammad is from you. By Allah I swear, my followers, whether they are from your clan or any other clan, are only the God-fearing. I will not admit you on the Day of Resurrection if you come to me burdened with the worldly disadvantages while others come with the advantages of the world to come. I am excused regarding my mission to you and the commandments of Allah for you. I have my own deeds and you will have your own deeds. [31]

 

 

 

This is in fact one of the Holy Quran’s morals; when Prophet Noah asked Almighty Allah to save his son, he was answered, “O Noah! Surely he is not of your family; surely he is (the doer of) other than good deeds. 11/46” Similarly, Prophet Abraham said, “Whoever follows me, he is surely of me. 14/36”

 

 

 

(5) AVOIDANCE OF FORBIDDEN ACTS

 

 

 

One of the axes of an actual believer’s relationship with Almighty Allah is the avoidance of all forbidden acts and sins whether the grand-that is the sins that Almighty Allah threatened Hell to anyone who commits them, such as fornication, sodomy, drinking intoxicants, devouring the wealth of orphans, perjury, swallowing usury, taking the lives that Allah has deemed sacred,[32] dealing in fraud [33]  or the insignificant. A Hadith reads, “Do not consider to the insignificance of a sin; rather consider the One whom you are disobeying.”

 

Imam al-Sadiq also said, [34] “He who commits fornications has departed from faith; he who drinks strong drink has departed from faith; and he who breaks the obligatory fasting in (the month of) Ramadhan has departed faith.” [35]

 

 

 

Among the grand sins are the accusing of the honorable women, [36] the impiety to the parents, the emigration to the non-Muslim 1ands, [37]supporting the unjust, refrainment from defraying the religious levies, practicing sorcery and false swearing. Generally, Hadiths have warned us against committing any sin, be it grand or insignificant. Imam Al-Baqir is reported as saying, “All sins are ruinous.”  [38]  Imam al-Sadiq is also reported as saying, “Avoid minor sins that will not be forgiven... They are the ones which if a man commits them he says: I am prosperous if I do not commit any other sins.”  [39]

 

 

 

The Prophet set the most excellent example of self-judgment: he, once, resided in a desert during a journey. He asked his companions to fetch firewood. They apologized that they were in a desert, but the Prophet asked them to search and fetch whatever they might find. Hence, they scattered in every direction. Afterwards, each one fetched a small quantity of wood and threw on each other. On that scene, the Prophet commented: “In this very way, sins are gathered. Beware of the insignificant sins, for there is an interrogator for each sin. That interrogator records ‘the deeds of human beings and their consequences. We keep everything recorded in an illustrious Book. 36:12’” [40]

 

 

 

The Ahl al-Bayt also warned their followers that the reason beyond any misfortune that afflicts them is the commitment of sins. Imam a1-Sadiq said: “Mufaddal: beware of committing sins and warn our adherents against so. By Allah I swear, you are the most targeted by sins. You may suffer the persecution of the ruling authorities. This is because of your commitment of sins. You may be ailed. This is because of your commitment of sins. Your sustenance may be stopped. This is because of your commitment of sins. You may suffer the agonies of death so severely. This is also because of your commitment of sins.” As the Imam noticed that al-Mufaddal was highly touched by these words, [41]  he commented: “You suffer all the previous in order that you will not be interrogated about your sins on the Day of Resurrection, since the punishment for such sins befall you in this world.” [42]  Hence, if you want to save yourselves from suffering misfortunes, you should avoid sinning.

 

 

 

 

 

(6) PIETY AND DEVOUTNESS

 

 

 

In the word of our mentor, the difference between devoutness and piety is that the earlier stands for the avoidance of committing the forbidden acts and the performance of the obligatory, while the latter stands for the avoidance of the suspicious acts and the persistence on the recommended acts [43] in addition to devoutness. Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said. “My disciples are only those who practice serious devoutness, worked for the sake of their Creator and hoped for His rewards.”  [44] “I advise you to fear Allah, be devout and work hard. Be it know to you that hard work is worthless unless there is devoutness.”  [45] Preaching his followers (Shiah), he said, “You should adhere to devoutness, for without it one cannot gain that which is with Almighty Allah.” “He who is not the most devout in any country whose populace is one hundred thousand persons and more is surely not one of us.” “Invite the people to the religion by means other than plain talk. Let them see your devoutness, hard work, prayer and good deeds for these things can act as heralds.” [46] “You should adhere to devoutness, for it is the practice to which we always cling and through which we worship Almighty Allah and thus we want it for anyone who follows us.”  [47]

 

 

 

About piety, Imam Ali used to say, “An act that is accompanied by piety shall never be decreased. Whatever thing that is acceptable (by Almighty Allah) shall never be decreased.” This is an indication to Almighty Allah’s saying, “Allah only accepts from those who are pious. 5/ 27”

 

 

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq is reported as saying. “As Allah moves some people from the humility of the acts of disobedience to Him, to the honor of acts of obedience to Him, He enriches them without wealth, supports them without need of a clan, and entertains without need to a bosom friend. He who fear: Allah, Allah will make everything fear him and will make him who does not fear Him fear everything. [48]  Allah accepts the few deeds of those who satisfy themselves with few earnings from Him.”  [49]

 

 

 

Imam Ali has described the pious in an emotive sermon at the end of which Humam, Imam Ali’s disciple and the asker for that sermon, passed into a deep swoon and then expired.

 

 

 

(7) EQUALIZATION BETWEEN FEAR AND HOPE

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said, “My father used to say: There is no believer without two lights in his heart: The light of fear and the light of hope. If you weigh each one, it will not outweigh the other one.” “ Luqman said to his son: Fear Allah so much that you think He will punish you even if you do all the good deeds of the Jinn and the people. Have so much hope in Allah’s Mercy that even if you commit all the sins of all the Jinn and the People, He will have Mercy upon you. ” [50]

 

One of the companions of Imam al-Sadiq told him: “There are some people who constantly commit sins until they die, and say that they hope for Allah’s Mercy." Imam al-Sadiq said: “These are the people who always have aspirations but do not do anything. They lie since whoever has some hope seeks what he is hopeful for, and whoever fears something will stay away from it. Such people are not within our disciples.” Imam al-Sadiq derived the aforementioned statement from Almighty Allah’s sayings, “Surely, the mercy of Allah is nigh to those who do good (to others). 7/56” “They do not intercede except for him whom He approves. 21/28”

 

 

 

 

 

(8) PREFERENCE OF ALLAH'S APPROVAL TO PERSONAL PASSIONS AND OTHERS' PLEASURES

 

 

 

Imam Baqir narrated upon the authority of Allah’s Prophet: “Almighty Allah said: I swear by my Honor, Majesty, Greatness, Grandeur, Light, and Highness of Position that none of the servants will choose his desires over Mine, without Me disrupting his affairs, and ruining his life, and getting him involved in it; and not giving anything to him but what I have destined for him. I swear by My Honor, Majesty, Greatness, Grandeur, Light, and Highness of Position that no servant chooses My wants over his own desires without My angels protecting him; and establishing the Heavens and the Earth to provide for his sustenance; and pursuing his business and protecting his interests; and turning the tables around and making the world to turn out to be in his favor against his expectations.” [51]

 

 

 

Imam Baqir said that Allah’s Prophet said: “Whoever seeks the pleasure of the people in what raises Allah’s anger will be admonished by the people who used to admire him before. Allah will protect whoever prefers to obey Allah, despite the people’s displeasure, from any enemies. [52] Allah the Almighty will remove from him the jealousy of any jealous ones, and the oppression of any oppressors, and will be his helper and protector.” [53]

 

 

 

In addition to the previous, there are other qualities that should be enjoyed by the Shiah; yet they cannot be presented in details hereby for fear of lengthiness. Some of these qualities are the trust in Almighty Allah’s assurance of one’s sustenance, His prevalence on one’s age and the reference to Him in advantageous and disadvantageous matters. In this respect, Imam al-Sadiq reported the following on the authority of Imam Ali: “No one shall experience real faith unless he realizes that he shall suffer from whatever he is to suffer, and he shall be safe from whatever he should be saved from. Indeed it is Allah Who brings forth loss or gain.” [54]

 

 

 

There are also the qualities of the resorting to Almighty Allah, the reliance upon Him and despair of anything or anyone other than Him. With regard to this, the Holy Quran reads, “And whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him; surely Allah attains His purpose. 65/3”

 

 

 

We should also mention the qualities of having good opinion about Almighty Allah, for He is as exactly as one think of Him, and the weeping for fear of Him. In this respect, the Holy Prophet is reported to have said, “Except three, every eye will be weeping on the Day of Resurrection. These three are an eye that spent a night sleeplessly for Allah’s sake, an eye that is lowered before what Allah has prohibited to gaze and an eye that shed tears due to fearing Allah.”  [55]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECOND AXIS:

 

RELATIONSHIP WITH ONESELF

 

 

 

(1) A true Shiite must regard his passions as his enemies bearing in mind the Hadith that reads, “One’s most mortal enemy is one’s self." Furthermore, passions must not be taken as one’s god that is always obeyed. In this respect, Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, “Have you then considered him who takes his low desire for his god, and Allah has made him err having knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart and put a covering upon his eye. Who can then guide him after Allah? Will you not then be mindful? 45/23”

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq narrated: On seeing the returning armies from the battlefront, the Holy Prophet said, “Blessed are those who have performed the minor jihad, and have yet to perform the major one.” When asked what the major jihad is, the Holy Prophet replied, “This is the jihad of the self” (struggle against self). [56]

 

 

 

(2) A true Shiite must engage himself in reforming his own defects instead of criticizing others’ faults. The Holy Prophet said, “Imam al-Sadiq quoted on the authority of the Holy Prophet: “Whoever possesses at least one or all of the following traits shall be protected by the shade of Allah’s Throne on the day in which there is no other shade but His: He treats others as he expects to be treated. He does not do anything unless he evaluates himself whether this will please Allah or raise His anger. He does not blame his Muslim brother for what he has not corrected in himself. Whoever tries to improve himself will never have a chance to seek out the flaws of other people, because once he improves himself and corrects one flaw, he will discover another one in himself.” [57]

 

 

 

(3) A true Shiite must treat people fairly as regards his relationship with them. One must thus love for people whatever he loves for himself and dislike for them whatever he dislikes for himself. Imam Ali says in this regard, “Verily, Almighty Allah shall increase the honor of him whoever treats people fairly as regards his relationship with them.”  [58]

 

 

 

(4) A true Shiite must not take sides with his tribe, nationality or anything other than Almighty Allah. Imam al-Sadiq says in this respect, “Anyone who takes sides with another or is sided by another on basis of tribalism will have taken off his neck the tie of faith.”  [59]

 

 

 

(5) A true Shiite must seize any opportunity of practicing good deeds. In this regard, Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, “Hasten to (do) good works. 2/148” “And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord; and a Garden, the extensiveness of which is (as) the heavens and the earth, it is prepared for those who guard (against evil). 3/133”

 

 

 

In his advises to Imam Ali, the Holy Prophet said, “O Ali: Employ four before the falling of four: employ your youth before old age comes upon you, employ your health before ailment comes upon you, employ your wealth before poverty comes upon you, and employ your life before death comes upon you.”  [60]

 

 

 

A true Shiite must also make his life an increase in every good thing. Imam al-Sadiq says, “One who makes no progress from one day to the next is at a loss. One whose last day is the best is accursed. One whose last day is the worst is at joy. One who does not achieve increase in his life is dragging himself to decrease. Death is in fact better than life for him who is in decrease.”  [61]

 

 

 

(6) A true Shiite must evaluate what he has done. Imam alKazhim says, “Whoever does not evaluate what his soul has done each day is not our follower. He should ask Allah for an increase in his good deeds, and should repent and ask for Allah’s forgiveness if he has done any bad deeds.” In his will to Abu-Tharr, the Holy Prophet said. “O Abu-Tharr: A man cannot be pious unless he evaluates what he has done in such a way that is more accurate than at one’s checking his partner’s deeds. Hence, one must know the source of his food, drink and dress-whether their source is lawful or ill-gotten. [62]  O Abu-Tharr: as for one who does not care whether he gains sustenance from lawful or unlawful source, Almighty Allah shall not care from which gate he will enter Hell.” [63]

 

 

 

(7) A true Shiite must be characterized by honesty and harmony between words and deeds and implicit and explicit appearances. Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said, “Tell our followers (Shiah) that, of all people, the greatest regret on the Day of Resurrection will be of those who speak about some aspect of justice but violate it in practice to do something else.” [64]  “He who repeats our words but infringes our deeds and instruction is definitely not one of our followers (Shiah). Our actual followers are only those whose words and deeds agree with ours and who stick to our instructions and imitate our acts.”  [65]

 

 

 

In his will to Abu-Tharr, the Holy Prophet said, “A group from Paradise will see a group of Hell and say to them, ‘How is that you have entered Hell while we have entered Paradise by virtue of your instructions and disciplines?’ They will be answered, ‘This is because we enjoined you to do good acts while we did not apply them to ourselves.”’ [66]  Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, “It is most hateful to Allah that you should say that which you do not do. 61/3”

 

 

 

(8) A true Shiite is characterized by steadfastness. Advising his followers, Imam al-Sadiq said, “Be steadfast against the worldly pleasures for it is no more than one hour; one can taste neither the pleasure nor the pain of what elapsed and similarly one cannot expect what will come. Therefore, the world is only the minute in which you live. You should thus be steadfast in doing acts of obedience to Allah and against committing acts of disobedience to Him.”  [67]

 

 

 

Imam al-Baqir is reported as saying, “In his final hours, my father embraced me to his chest and said: Son, if you be steadfast before the right, even if it will be unpleasant, you will be given your rewards without reckoning.” [68]  Imam alSadiq is also reported as saying, “I heard Imam al-Baqir saying: I am training myself to endure the harm of my servants or wife. Verily, one who practice tolerance will be rewarded with the rank of the observant of fasting who spends nights with acts of worship and the rank of the martyr who fought the enemies defending the Holy Prophet.”  [69]

 

 

 

(9) A true Shiite must prefer the Next World to this transient one. [70] In one of his sermons, the Holy Prophet said, “One who has the option to choose either this world or the world to come but he chooses this one will meet Allah empty of any good deed that saves him from Hellfire; but one who prefers the world to come to this one will meet Allah, on the Resurrection Day, with pleasure.”  [71]

 

 

 

This world is despised only when it distracts from the preparations of the Hereafter. In this respect, the Holy Prophet is reported as saying, “One who loves this world will definitely prejudice the Hereafter.” [72]  Imam al-Sadiq is also reported to have said, “Love for this world is the origin of each and every wrongdoing.” [73]  Advising Imam Ali, the Holy Prophet said, “O Ali, Allah revealed to this world: “Serve him who will serve Me and disturb him who will serve you.” O Ali, Allah will not give any atheist or hypocrite a single drink of water of this world if it equals for Him the amount of a mosquito’s wing. O Ali, on the Day of Resurrection, every individual, including all the past and the coming generations, will hope were they given only the minimum sustenance.”  [74] Imam al-Baqir said: “In his love for the world, the greedy is like the silkworm: the more it wraps in its cocoon, the less it has of escaping from it, until it dies of grief.”  [75]

 

 

 

From this cause the holy Infallibles have encouraged their followers to abstain from the worldly pleasures. Imam al-Sadiq says in this regard, “Almighty Allah will fill the heart of whoever is abstinent in this world with wisdom, and enable him to speak wisely. He will enable him to see the flaws in this world, their problems and treatment. Almighty Allah will take him out of this world healthy and deliver him to Heaven.”  [76]

 

 

 

(10) A true Shiite must never use obscene language or indecent words and must never curse or swear others. As he was informed that one of his followers pronounced obscene language, Imam al-Sadiq said, “This is indeed not my habit. I never instruct anyone to say such words. You must seek your Lord’ forgiveness and you must not do it ever again.” [77]  The Holy Prophet is reported as saying, “One who does not care for his speech or for what is said to him is definitely semisons of devils.”  [78]

 

A true Shiite must never violate others’ rights. Instructing his companions, Imam al-Sadiq said, “Beware of violating others' rights, for this is improper for the righteous. Verily, Almighty Allah will cause the inconvenience of any act of violation to afflict the doer of that act and, thus, Almighty Allah will give His support to the violated one. Verily, one who is supported by Allah shall certainly win and gain His triumph." [79]  Expressing this issue, the Holy Prophet said, “If a mountain wrongs another, Almighty Allah will make it dust. Aggression is the quickest in punishment; and charity is the quickest in rewarding.”

 

 

 

(11) True Shiites immediately recall their mistakes when they commit a wrongdoing or when glamour from Satan troubles them. They therefore turn to their Lord through repentance and seek His forgiveness. It has been narrated that Almighty Allah has given the repentant three characteristics one of which can save all the inhabitants of the earth and the heavens. These three characteristics are His sayings -in the Holy Quran-, (1) “Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean. 2:222” Accordingly one whom is loved by Almighty Allah will not be punished by Him, (2) “Forgive, then, those who turn in Repentance, and follow Thy Path; and preserve them from the Penalty of the Blazing Fire. 40/7” and (3) “Unless he repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 25/70”

 

 

 

Imam al-Baqir is reported as saying, “Verily, when one of His servants repent to Him, Almighty Allah becomes more pleasant than a man who finds both his luggage and riding animal after he lost them in a murky night.”  [80]

 

 

 

True Shiites also fear gradual overtaking and respite about which Imam al-Sadiq said, “Whenever Almighty Allah wills to abandon man. He will let him commit a sin, and then give him a blessing. This will make him forget that he has committed a sin and he will not seek Allah’s forgiveness. This is what is meant by Allah gradually abandoning man."  [81]

 

 

 

(12) A true Shiite is always modest with regards food and chaste with regards sexual desires. Imam al-Sadiq is reported as saying, “Ali’s true follower is one who is careful about what he eats and guards his honor, is hard-working, works for his Creator and expects his rewards from Him, and fears His chastisement. When you see such people, they are my followers also."  [82]

 

 

 

Imam Ali, once, turned his face to the group who were following him and asked them about their beliefs. “We are your Shiah, Amir al-Mu’minin," they answered. He said, “But I cannot see the marks of the Shiah on your faces.” “What are the marks of the Shiah?” asked they. He spoke: The Shiah are pale-faced because of staying up at nights, having tiny stomachs because of fasting, and dry-lipped because of their prayers to Allah. The dust of the submissive covers them.”  [83]

 

 

 

(13) True Shiites must have considerable knowledge in the fields of the religion. As a minimum, they must experience the repetitively needed questions of the religion. When he was asked whether it is permissible for people to neglect learning the religious laws with which they always deal, the Imam's answer was ‘No’. [84]  The Holy Prophet said, “Seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon each Muslim. Verily, Almighty Allah loves the seekers of knowledge.” [85]  Imam al-Sadiq said, “I wish I could whip my disciples on their heads so as to draw them to knowledge.”  [86] Addressing his disciples, Imam al-Sadiq said, “Adhere to the learning of the religious fields and be not like the (uneducated) Bedouins. Verily, Almighty Allah, on the Resurrection Day. shall neither look at nor accept the deed of him who has not learnt the religious questions.” [87]  Advising Basheer al-Dahhan, Imam al-Sadiq said, “There is not good in our disciples if they do not learn the religious questions. O Basheer: if our disciple does not manage with his own religious knowledge, he will certainly need them (the non-Shiah); and if he does, they will cause him to enter the gate of their deviation without letting him feel such." [88]  Moreover, Imam al-Sadiq reported the Holy Prophet’s displeasure with anyone who does not learn the religious questions. In this respect, the Holy Prophet said, “Fie unto him whoever does not dedicate Fridays to learning the religious questions and him whoever neglect learning the affairs of his religion.”  [89]

 

 

 

In addition to the previous, a true Shiite must enjoy other features such as those mentioned in the following Hadith, “...his utterance is lenient, his evils are nonexistent, his virtues are ever present, his speech is truthful, his deeds are good, his good is ahead, and mischief has turned its face (from him). He is dignified during calamities, patient in distresses, and thankful during ease. He does not commit excess over him whom he hates, and does not commit sin for the sake of him whom he loves. He does not claim of possessing that which is not his and does not deny the right that is incumbent upon him. He admits truth before evidence is brought against him. He does not misappropriate what is placed in his custody, and does not forget what he is required to remember. He does not call others bad names, and does not oppress anybody. He does not take the initiative in envy, he does not cause harm to his neighbor, and he does not feel happy at others misfortunes.”  [90]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THIRD AXIS:

 

RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS

 

 

 

(1) A true Shiite must do favor to everybody. Imam al-Sajjad, advising his son Imam al-Baqir, said, “O my Son: Do whatever good deeds anyone asks you to do. If he is a good man, a good deed has been done. And if he is not, at least you have performed your duty. If a man swears at you, and then apologizes, accept his apologies." [91]  This instruction is of course deduced from the Holy Quran that reads, “Repel evil with that which is best: We are well acquainted with the things they say. 23/96”

 

 

 

(2) A true Shiite must avoid wronging or trespassing against others. After Imam Ali had known the Abd al-Rahman ibn Muljim was willing to do evil to him, it was suggested to him to kill or detain the man so as to evade his evil. Imam Ali rejected saying, “To punish before a crime is taken place is offensive.” On the other side, the United States of America, the example of the civilized West, is threatening humanity with destruction and affliction under the title of ‘protective and anticipant strokes,’ so as to avoid any probable danger. Ponder over the great difference between the moralities of Islam and the Ahl al-Bayt from one side and the Western system of manners from the other.

 

 

 

Back to the topic, the Holy Imams have concentrated on the avoidance of any aspect of injustice, no matter how insignificant it would be. In this respect, Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said, “On the Path to Paradise (al-Siratt), there is an arch that cannot be passed by one who has made a transgression.” Imam al-Sajjad is also reported to have said, “Certainly, the oppressed party seizes from the religion of the wronging party more than that which the wronging party seizes from the oppressed party’s property.” [92]  Imam al-Baqir is reported to have said that the wronging of others is one of the sins that Almighty Allah will not let off. From this cause, people are ordered to acquit themselves from any act of injustice before they are surprised by death. In the same way, they are ordered not to assist the unjust ones. In this respect, Imam al-Sadiq is reported as saying, “The doer of an act of injustice, his assistant and the consenter are partners of the same sin."  [93]

 

 

 

The Holy Prophet, advising Imam Ali, says, “O Ali, the evilest people are those who sold their lives to come with their worldly lives of others.”  [94]

 

 

 

(3) A true Shiite befriends and shuns for the sake of Almighty Allah. This is in fact one of the essential principles mentioned in the Holy Quran. Without this principle, the religion will be obliterated. In this respect, the Holy Quran reads, “You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and the latter day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their (own) fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed faith, and whom He has strengthened with an inspiration from Him: and He will cause them to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein; Allah is well-pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him these are Allah’s party: now surely the party of Allah are the successful ones. 58/22”

 

 

 

Our youths who are tagging along the Western civilization must understand this principle more than anybody else. The Imperialistic powers have overstepped all bounds when they ordered the Muslim governments to cancel even the religious curricula headed by the lessons of the Holy Quran because, as they have claimed, they encourages terrorism.

 

 

 

Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have said, “He who claims being one of our Shiah while he is clinging to the handle of somebody else is surely liar.” [95]  Imam al-Ridha is also reported as saying, “He who follows the enemies of Allah will certainly antagonize the disciples of Allah, and whoever antagonizes the disciples of Allah will antagonize Allah Who will incumbently put him in the fire of Hell.”  [96]  “Some of those who claim the affection for us -the Prophet’s household- are more dangerous for our Shiah than the ordeal of the Dajjal...

 

They support our enemies and antagonize our followers. When this occurs, the right will be confused with the wrong and the whole matter will be perplexed. Then, there will be no distinction between the believers and the hypocrites.” [97] Imam al-Baqir is also reported as saying, “The mutual love of the believers that is intended sincerely for the sake of Allah is one of the greatest classes of faith. He who loves, hates, gives, deprives-all for the sake of Allah is surely one of the choices of Allah.”  [98]

 

 

 

(4) A true Shiite enjoins the right and forbids the wrong. This is indeed one of the most significant characteristics that must be carried by the Muslim community, ‘the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men’ in the word of the Holy Quran. The Holy Prophet is reported as saying, “My ummah will be kept in goodness so long as they do not breach the trusts of each other, keep on fulfilling their trusts, and defray the Zakat; otherwise, they will be inflicted with famine, harsh years of draught, mutual assaults and they will not find a supporter on the earth or in the heavens.” Imam al-Sadiq also advised his Shiah by saying, “The aged and men of thought should sympathize with the ignorant and seekers of knowledge lest my curse will afflict all of you.”  [99]

 

 

 

The least degree of enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong is to deny an evildoing with oneself. Imam Ali reported the Holy Prophet as saying, “He who detested a matter that he witnessed is as same as those who were absent from it, and he who was absent from a matter that he loved is as same as those who witnessed it.”  [100]  Imam Ali said, “The least of forbidding an evildoing is to meet the evildoers with despondency.” [101]  “Imam al-Sadiq also said, “Am I not rightful to punish the righteous of you for the evildoings of the bad among you? This is because you have neither forbidden nor deserted nor annoyed those who act wrongdoings among you so as to force them to stop.”  [102]  “A faithful believer must not attend any session in which Almighty Allah is disobeyed while he/she cannot change it.”  [103]

 

 

 

(5) A true Shiite observes and cares for the affairs of the Muslims throughout the earth. In this respect, Imam al-Sadiq says, “One who does not care for the affairs of the Muslims is not one of them.”  [104] Imam al-Baqir is also reported to have said, “A true believer is depressed when he is unable to respond to his brother’s need. For such a depression, Almighty Allah allows such a believer to enter Paradise.”  [105]

 

 

 

(6) A true Shiite is enjoined to visit his brothers-in-faith and hold purposeful meetings for discussing advantageous topics. In this respect, Imam al-Sadiq says, “Exchange visits for such meetings act as activation for your hearts and remembrance of our heritage. Our Hadiths promote you to sympathize with each other; and if you practice them to your behaviors, you will surely be guided and saved; but if you neglect them, you will be led astray and will perish. You should thus adopt them and I guarantee your salvation. In fact, I wish I were with you on such occasions."  [106]

 

 

 

(7) Thorough light has been shed on the settlement of the brother's needs in the Ahl al-Bayt's heritage. Imam al-Sadiq is reported as saying, “Any Muslim individual who settles a need for a Muslim will be called by Allah, ‘I am responsible for your reward, and I will not give you anything less than Paradise.” [107] Imam al-Ridha said, “The request of settling the need of a Muslim brother is in reality mercy gifted by Almighty Allah. If this request is responded, it will cause him who responded to be connected to the (divinely commissioned) loyalty to us, which is also connected to the loyalty to Almighty Allah. In the request is rejected while he who rejects it is capable of settling it, Almighty Allah will appoint a serpent created of fire to bite him who rejects to settle the request in his grave up to the Resurrection Day. Then, he will be decided as either forgiven or punished." [108]  Moreover, the Ahl al-Bayt have regarded the settlement of Muslim brother’s needs as preferred to the other acts of seeking nearness to Almighty Allah-such as recommended Hajj, Umrah (recommended pilgrimage to the Holy Ka’bah), pious confinement (I’tikaf) and recommended circumambulation of the Holy Ka’bah-in such a fixed way that the Imam, once, interrupted his Circumambulation of the Holy Ka’bah in order to settle the need of an individual. [109]  Moreover, the holy Infallibles have threatened those who shun settling the needs of their brothers-in-faith with various sorts of penalties. Imam al-Sadiq, in this regard, says, “As for him whoever shuns settling the needs of his brother-in-belief while he is able to do it, Almighty Allah shall certainly cause him to settle the needs of many of our enemies and accordingly he, on the Resurrection Day, will be punished for such.” [110]  Many examples on this condition have been observed in the reality.

 

 

 

(8) A true Shiite must focus his conducts on assisting the poor, advancing money to the needy and granting the insolvent a respite. Abu-Baseer narrated that Imam al-Sadiq, having listened to our talk about the rich Shiites, commented with reproof, “Abu-Muhammad: As for a rich believer who keeps good ties with others, treats them kindly and does favor to his friends, Almighty Allah shall double his reward. In His holy Book (i.e. the Holy Quran), Almighty Allah says, ‘It is not your wealth nor your sons, that will bring you nearer to Us in degree: but only those who believe and work righteousnessthese are the ones for whom there is a multiplied Reward for their deeds, while secure they (reside) in the dwellings on high. 34/37’” [111] The Holy Prophet said, “He who gives alms will have ten times as much to his credit; he who advances money as loan will have eighteen times as much to his credit; he who keeps good ties with his friends will have twenty times as much to his credit; and he who keeps good ties with his kinsfolk will have twenty-four times as much to his credit.”  [112]

 

 

 

(9) A true Shiite must be characterized by other qualities, such as gladdening the believer, which, in the words of the holy Infallibles, is regarded as gladdening the Holy Prophet and Imams,  [113]  concealing the defects of the brothers-in-faith, observing their dignities, caring for their reputations, avoiding any sort of defaming them before people, [114]  well-wish for them, avoiding cheating them, [115]  having mercy upon them, avoiding laying on them what is unbearable for them and bearing feelings of mercy for all the people. In this respect, Imam Ali, in his famous epistle to Malik al-Ashtar, says,

 

 

 

“Develop in your heart the feeling of love for your people and let it be the source of kindliness and blessing to them. Do not behave with them like a barbarian, and do not appropriate to yourself that which belongs to them. Remember that the citizens of the state are of two categories. They are either your brethren in religion or your brethren in kind. They are subject to infirmities and liable to commit mistakes. Some indeed do commit mistakes. But forgive them even as you would like God to forgive you.” [116]

 

 

 

The modern charlatans of human rights should consider such exalted instructions and stop their evildoings whose likes cannot be found even in jungles.

 

 

 

The aforementioned maxims of the holy Infallibles have been a little part of their all-inclusive heritage whose instructions have covered all the fields of life. Through the spread of such instructions, the Ahl al-Bayt intended to educate their disciples and to make them well-mannered because they, the Ahl al-Bayt, loved their disciples and wished for them the attainment of high ranks. Addressing his disciples, Imam al-Sadiq says, “I, by Allah, love you as well as your smells and souls.” [117]  Imam al-Ridha is also reported as saying, “Our Shiah see through the light of Allah, move about in the mercy of Allah, and will win the dignity of Allah. We feel the same pains that any of our Shiah feels during ailment, we become grieved whenever any of our Shiah becomes grieved, and we feel happy whenever any of our Shiah feels happy. No one of our Shiah can be out of our auspices, whether he was in the east or the west of the earth.”  [118]

 

 

 

One of the people of al-Kufah narrated the following: During the reign of Marwan, the last of the Umayyad rulers whom was nicknamed ‘the donkey' due to the feebleness of his government, I, accompanied by a group of the Shiah, visited Imam al-Sadiq, “Where are you from?" asked the Imam. “We are from al-Kufah," answered we. The Imam commented, “There is no country that we love more than al-Kufah in general and your party in particular. Verily, Almighty Allah has guided you to a matter (the loyalty to the Ahl al-Bayt) that the others ignored. You have loved us when the others hated us; you have followed us when the others diverged from us; and you have believed us when the others belied us. Almighty Allah has therefore given you the honor to live as same as we do and to die on the same principles on which we die. I have truly heard my father saying: there is nothing standing between you and your attaining delight and gladness except your souls’ reaching your throats (i.e. death).”  [119]  Imam al-Sadiq also narrated, “One day, my father and I went out to the mosque. We met some people who were taking the place between the tomb and the minbar. My father approached and greeted them. He then said: I, by Allah, love you as well as your smells and souls. Hence, help us keep on so by means of your piety and diligence. You should know that the loyalty to us cannot be obtained except by means of piety and diligence. He who follows someone should imitate his deeds. You are the Shiah of Allah, you are the supporters of Allah, and you are the foremost forerunners, the last forerunners, the foremost to the love for us in this world, and the foremost to win Paradise on the Last Day. I have guaranteed Paradise for you, for the guarantee that is granted by Allah, Powerful and Majestic is He, and the Holy Prophet.”  [120]

 

 

 

O Allah: grant us to live like the lives of Muhammad and the Household of Muhammad; and to die on the principles on which they died; and to include us with their group; and not to separate us from them. Verily, you are the All-merciful.

 

 

 

All blessings be upon Muhammad and his Immaculate and Infallible Household.

 

 

 

 

 

 [1] Al-Hurr al-‘Aamili: Wasaa’il al-Shi’ah, Vol. 11, pp. 391

 

 [2] Ibid pp. 386-389.

 

 [3] Ibid pp. 386-392.

 

 [4] AI-Tabrisi: al-ihtijaj 2:325.

 

 [5] ibid 2:323.

Having the honor of meeting Imam al-Mahdi can occur to the likes of the locksmith whose story is as follows:

 

Wishing for meeting Imam al-Mahdi, a worshipful man practiced strict spiritual exercises for a long period. When he could not reach anything, despair crept into his heart. He was exercising acts of worship when he heard a caller saying, “To reach the Patron is to journey towards the Beloved.” Hearing this, the worshipful man started a new round of more strict spiritual exercises that he secluded himself in a mosque for forty days. There, he heard a new caller saying, “You can find your Patron sitting in the market of the blacksmiths at the door of the store of an old locksmith.” The man hurried to that place and found the bright presence of Imam al-Mahdi. The man writhed with fear, but the Imam asked him to watch what was going to happen. It was not long until a very old lady came and asked the locksmith to buy the lock that she had in her hand with three dinars. “The actual value of this lock is eight dinars and it can reach ten if I fix it," answered the locksmith. The old lady thought that he was mocking at her. But he gave her seven dinars saying, “Because I merchandise with looks, I will pay seven dinars for this lock so that I will earn one dinar.” The old lady left cheerfully. Then Imam al-Mahdi turned his face to the worshipful man saying, “If you will be like this old blacksmith, I myself will visit you and then you Will no longer need for practicing acts of worship for forty days or using ciphers or letters. You should only do righteous deeds, no more.” Excerpted from Amina wa Mu’ammal; 2.

 

 

 

 [6]This narration is recorded in Al-Durr aI-Manthour.  

 

 [7] This narration is further recorded in the following reference books of Hadith: Zubdat aI-Afkar 209-210, Al-Durr al-Manthour 82588-589, Tathkirat al-Khawaass 18 where it is recorded that the same narration has been recorded in al-Tabari’s Tafsir (Exegesis of the Holy Quran), al-Shawkani’s Fat'h aI-Qadeer, al-Mannawi’s Kunouz al-Haqaa'iq and al-Hakim al-Hasakani‘s Shawaahid al-Tanzeel.

 

 

 

 [8] This narration is quoted from (the book entitled) Bi-Nouri Fatimata ihtadayt as quoted from ibn Hajar’s al-Sawaa’iq aI-Muhriqah; Section 11, Chapter 1, Verse 11.

 

 [9] See Zubdat aI-Afkar as quoted from ibn Hajar’s al-Sawaa 'iq aI-Muhriqah; 161.

 

 [10] This sermon can be investigated in Al-Tabr'isi’s Mishkat uI-Anwar; 44, al-Majlisi‘s Behar al-Anwar; 70:283 H.4 and Shaykh al-Saduq‘s Sifat al-Shiah.

 

 [11] The worthiest of studying, looking in and preserving this epistle must be the choice of the faithful believers. Yet, only a few of them have seen this epistle. How will it then be possible for us to lead the society towards uprightness while we ourselves have not applied the epistle of Imam al-Sadiq to our conducts? 

 

 [12] A genuine believer is observing Almighty Allah in each and every step that he takes, whether it is related to his personal affairs or his relations with others. He thus lives with Almighty Allah continually. In this regard, Almighty Allah says, “Those who felt Allah, when a thought of evil from Satan assaults them, bring Allah to remembrance. when lo! they lee (aright). 7/201"  

 

 [13] The recognition of Almighty Allah is the purpose for which He created us. When he was asked about the meaning of Almighty Allah's saying. "I have only created Jinn and men that they may serve Me. 51/56" Imam Al-Husayn said. “To serve Almighty Allah means to recognize Him.”

 

 

 

 [14] To investigate such proofs, it is advised to refer to books of Islamic doctrines and theology.

 

 

 

 [15] For instance, the natural proof on Almighty Allah’s Oneness is His saying, “If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both! but glory to Allah, the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above what they attribute to Him. 21/22”

 

 [16] It has been narrated that the Ahl al-Bayt said, “One who recognizes himself has in reality recognized his Lord," “Self-recognition is the most advantageous knowledge," “One who is ignorant about himself will be more ignorant about others," “The more self-recognizant the more God-fearing," and “The worst kind of ignorance is self-ignorance.”

 

 [17] imam al-Baqir is reported to have said, “Only he who recognizes Almighty Allah will worship him (as it should be). One who does not recognize Him will not worship Hun without success and incorrectly... The recognition of Almighty Allah means the belief in Him. the belief in his Messenger, the loyalty to and the following of (the divinely commissioned leadership of) Ali and the Imam: of guidance and the repudiation (before Almighty Allah) of their enemies. Thus shall Almighty Allah be recognized.‘ Quoted from Al-Kafi.

 

As he was asked about the head of knowledge, the Holy Prophet said. “The head of knowledge it the recognition of Allah as He deserves to be recognized. That is attained by recognizing that He it unique. and there in nothing else like Him, That He is the only God. He exists inwardly and outwardly. He is the First and the Last. There is no match for him and nothing is similar to Him. This is how one may really know Him.“ Quoted from Bihar al-Anwar.

 

It has been narrated on the authority of Imam al-Sediq that Imam al-Husayn ibn Ali. once. said to his companions, “O people: Verily. Almighty Allah has not created the beings except for the reason that they should recognize Him. If they recognize Him. they will worship Him .. The recognition of Allah means that each generation must recognize their Imam the obedience to whom is obligatory upon them." Quoted from Bihar al-Anwar

 

 

 

 [18] It is unfeasible to regard as too much for the Ahl al-Bayt to be bestowed with such a position while a similar creational bestowal has been given to beings that are of less position than they are. For instance, it has been narrated that the whole world becomes as tiny as a coin in the hand of Archangel Ezrael (Angel of Death) who can turn it as he likes. Moreover, he looks in each human being five times every day. Prophet Jesus has also been given the ability to determine out of dust like the form of a bird then breathe into it and it becomes a bird, heal the blind and the leprous and bring the dead to life.

 

 [19] Imam al-Mahdi advised the man who lost his way to the Hajj (ritual Pilgrimage) to read regularly the aI-Ziyarah al-Jami’ah al-Kabirah and repeated this advice three times before the man. This Ziyarah comprises clear-cut indications to the creational capability over things, such as the statement, “Allah had created you in the first place and then disclosed to you His plan of creation on account of you. He sent down abundant and far-spread rain. Because of you the sky prevents itself from falling down over the earth unless He permits. Due to you He drives away troubles and dismisses hardships.”

 

 [20] Rawdhat al-Kafi 92.

 

 [21] Rawdhat al-Kafi 111.

 

 [22] It is insufficient to slap one’s chest on the occasions of the Ahl aI-Bayt‘s martyrdom-as an expression of sorrow for them-or to show delight on the anniversaries of their days of birth while their instructions are violated.

 

 [23] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:486.

 

 [24] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa ’il al-Shi ’ah 11:127.

 

 [25] The edge of neutralization stands for the fact that no description can express the actual attributes of Allah. The edge of anthropomorphism stand: for the fact that Allah cannot be anthropomorphized.

 

 

 

 [26] Refer to As-Saduq’s al-Amali; 278 H.24, at-Tawhid; 81 H.37, Kamal al-Din; 279 H. 1 , Keshf al-Ghumma; 2:525, Kifayat al-Athar; 286, Rawdhat al-Wa 'idheen; 31, A 'lam al-Din; 436.

 

 [27] Shaykh al-Saduq: Sifat al-Shiah H. 5.

 

 [28] Ponder deliberately each statement of this great maxim. Indeed, each statement requires a lot of work, not only reading.

 

 [29] In some religions, their religious authorities grant people indulgences (grants of remission) in spite of their ill deeds.

 

 [30]  Shaykh al-Saduq: Sifat al-Shiah H. 22.

 

 [31] Shaykh al-Saduq: Sifat aI-Shiah H. 8

 

 [32] This grand sin is unfortunately committed by some of the tribes whose individuals kill each other massively for worthless reasons.

 

 [33] Unfortunately, these days, people are giving variety to means of fraud, such as putting a lodestone in one of the scales of the balance, digging the interior of the weight or changing the position of one of the levers of the balance. They should realize that such deeds arc grand sins that Almighty Allah has threatened the harshest punishment to anybody who commits them. Why are you then throwing yourselves in such perils for the sake of gaining a few coins? If you fear Almighty Allah, He will certainly endow you with doubles. He, the Almighty, says, “And for those who fear Allah, He (ever) prepares a way out; and He provides for him from (sources) he never could imagine. And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will surely accomplish his purpose: verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion. 65/2-3”

 

 

 

 [34] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa '11 aI-Shi’ah 11:255.

 

 [35] Unfortunately, some of the youths are boasting of committing such sins that take them out of faith and include them with the uneducated. The Holy Quran says, “The dwellers of the desert say: We believe. Say: You do not believe but say, We submit; and faith has not yet entered into your hearts; and if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not diminish aught of your deeds; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 49/14”

 

 [36] Our tribes are also suffering from committing this grand sin. Very simply, they are ready to accuse any woman of adultery and thus kill her under the title of removing the shame that she caused to them. They must know that accusing the honorable women is alone a grand sin the religious sentence of which is eighty lashes. None is allowed to accuse any woman unless there are four witnesses. Hence, you must fear Allah and avoid enraging Him.

 

 [37] (Al-Ta 'arrub Ba'd al-Hijrah) literally means going back to the nomadic life after experiencing urbanism. It is worth mentioning that the word ‘Ta ’arrub’ does not mean becoming A ‘rabiy (an Arab in the desert); rather it means becoming uneducated in the religious affairs. This grand sin is also common among the Muslim youths who, as soon as they find an opportunity, leave their Muslim countries to non-Muslim ones where they may waste their religious duties. Thus, they must know that this is one of the grand sins.

 

 [38]Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa‘il al-Shi 'ah 11:237.  

 

 [39] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa ‘iI aI-Shi ’ah 11:245. This statement means that one may say that his sins are easy or worthless comparing them to the grand sins committed by others and thus he says, ‘Whatever sins I commit, 1 will not be like so-and-so.” Such a poor man is in reality deceived by Satan who provides him this excuse due to which he will suffer harsh punishments for belittling the sins that he committed violating the law of Almighty Allah, the All-omnipotent.

 

 [40] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:245.

 

 [41] Al-Mufaddal wondered why misfortunes afflict the disciples ofthe holy lmams whom should be nearer to Almighty Allah than others are.

 

 [42]Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa’Il al-Shi'ah 11:241.

 

 [43]All, not a part of, the recommended acts must be performed because some of them may be neglected.

 

 [44] AL-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il aI-Shi’ah 11:193.

 

 [45] ibid 11:192.  

 

 [46] To simplify the idea, imagine that a religious man who is well-known of piety and righteousness passes by you without saying a single word; his sight will certainly remind you of Almighty Allah causing your heart to beat in love for the religion. Such a man is thus a herald of Almighty Allah without using his tongue. The holy infallibles want us to be like this man.

 

 [47]AI-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:192-6.

 

 [48]Having a deep look into these great meanings, I attempted to understand them through connecting them to the Attributes of Almighty Allah. When one comes close to Almighty Allah, he will acquire His Attributes. A Hadith reads, “Acquire the attributes of Almighty Allah.” For instance, since Almighty Allah is the All-powerful, it is He Who grants power to whomever He desires. The Holy Quran reads, “Whoever desires power, then to Allah belongs the power wholly. 35/10” “And to Allah belongs the power and to His Messenger and to the believers. 63/8” Likewise, since Almighty Allah is the All-honorable, it is He alone Who grants honor to whomever He desires. Following this method, one can connect the Ahl al-Bayt to the Holy Attributes of Almighty Allah (Asmaa Allah aI-Husna) since they are the Holy Attributes.  

 

 [49] Ibn Shu’abah al-Harrani: Tuhaf al-quul 59 (the English version).

 

 [50] imam al-Sadiq has quoted the words of Luqman for explaining the comparison between fear and hope, which is indeed a delicate equation where fear must not overweigh hope lest despair of Almighty Allah’s mercy, which is one of the grand sins, will occur. One of the features of despair of Almighty Allah’s mercy is that one may look at his huge sins and believe that Almighty Allah will not forgive them.

 

 [51] Al-Tabarsi: Mishkat al-Anwar fi Ghurar il-Akhbar 54 (the English version).

 

 [52] Ponder over this statement and its likes deliberately and always put it before your eyes and consider it as the course of your life. It provides a Divine guarantee after which one must not consider anything in the direction of carrying out any act that achieves Almighty Allah’s pleasure.

 

 [53] Al-Tabarsi: Mrshkat al-Anwar ft Ghurar iI-Akhbar 134 (the English version).

 

 [54] ibid 104.

 

 [55] ibn Shu'abah al-Harrani: Tuhaf al-uqoul 15 (the English version).

 

 [56] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa’il al-Shi'ah 11:122.

 

 [57] ibid 11:225.

 

 [58] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi’ah 11:269.

 

 [59] Ibid.

 

 [60] Shaykh al-Saduq: al-Mawaaizh (the Sermons) 67 (the English Version).

 

 [61] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa 'il al-Shi 'ah 11:376.

 

 [62] Some of those whom are guided by Almighty Allah to the acts of obedience to him accustom themselves to carrying a small notebook in their pockets so that they would record every act of disobedience that they commit that day. When night falls, they open that notebook and evaluate their deeds before they go to sleep.

 

 [63] Al-Hurr aI-‘Amili: Wasaa'il aL-Shi'ah 11:379.

 

 [64]Ibid 11:253. This instruction must be directed to the students of the Hawzah more than anyone else.  

 

 [65] Ibid 11:196.

 

 [66] Ibid 11:420.

 

 [67] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa‘il al-Shi’ah 11:187.

 

 [68] ibid 11:188.  

 

 [69] ibid 11:209.

 

 [70] it is necessary to refer to the fact that the world that is condemned in the heritage of the Ahl al-Bayt is not every aspect of the life; rather what is intended is the worldly affairs that one betakes as the utmost purpose of the existence. The world that is betaken as means and path to the Next World is naturally not condemned because, such being the case, it will be one's capital through dealing with Almighty Allah.  

 

 [71] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa‘ll al-Shi'ah 11:286.

 

 [72] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:309.  

 

 [73] ibid 11:309.

 

 [74] Shaykh al-Saduq: al-Mawaaizh (the Sermons) 83-4 (the English Version).

 

 [75] Sayyid Mahdi al-Sadr: The AhI aI-Bayt; Ethical Role-Models 55.

 

 [76] Al-Tabarsi: Mishkat al-Anwar fi Ghurar il-Akhbar 287 (the English version).

 

 [77] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:328.

 

 [78] ibid 11: 329.

 

 [79] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi’ah 11:333.

 

 [80] ibid 11:358.

 

 [81] Al-Tabarsi: Mishkat al-Anwar fi Ghurar il-Akhbar 844 (the English Version).

 

 [82] Shaykh al-Saduq's Sifat aI-Shiah H. 12.

 

 [83] ibid H. 20.

 

 [84] AI-Kulayni: Usoul al-Kafi: kitab Fadhl al-‘ilm Chapter 1, H. 3.

 

 [85] ibid H. 5.

 

 [86] ibid H. 6.

 

 [87] Al-Kulayni: Usoul al-Kaft: Kitab Fadhl al-‘ilm Chapter I, H. 7.

 

 [88] ibid H. 6.

 

 [89] Ibid.

 

 [90] Shaykh al-Saduq: Sifat al-Shiah H. 35.

 

 [91] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi 'ah 11:528.

 

 [92] Shaykh al-Saduq: ‘lqab al-A 'maal  272.

 

 [93] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa 'il al-Shi’ah 11:345.

 

 [94] Ibid.

 

 [95] Shaykh al-Saduq's sifat al-Shiah H. 4.

 

 [96] Shaykh al-Saduq’s Sifat al-Shiah H. 11.

 

 [97] Ibid.

 

 [98] AI-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi'ah 11:431.

 

 [99] Ibid.

 

 [100] Al-Hun’ al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi’ah 11:409.  

 

 [101] ibid 11:413. We must understand this instruction in the approved manner unlike some of our Muslim youths who, on enjoining good and forbidding evil, use coarseness, brutality and gloominess. Indeed, this is inaccurate. Instead, wisdom, fair exhortation, good manners and the other methods of guidance must be practiced so that the others will be influenced and step by step guided to the right path.  

 

 [102] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa ‘il al-Shi'ah 11:415.

 

 [103] Ibid 11:503.

 

 [104] ibid 11:559.

 

 [105] ibid 11:560.

 

 [106] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa’il al-Shi’ah 11:567.

 

 [107] Sayyid Mahdi al-Sadr: The Ahl al-Bayt: Ethical Role-Models 314.

 

 [108] AI-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il al-Shi’ah 11:578.

 

 [109] ibid 11:585.

 

 [110] Al-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa 'il al-Shi 'ah 11:598.

 

 [111] ibid 11:524.

 

 [112] ibid 11:546.

 

 [113] ibid 11:545.

 

 [114] ibid 11:592.

 

 [115] ibid 11:594.

 

 [116] The Epistle: Imam Ali's Famous Epistle to Malik: Ashtar 10.

 

 [117] AI-Hurr al-‘Amili: Wasaa'il aI-Shi ‘ah 11:567

 

 [118] Shaykh aI-Saduq: Sifat al-Shiah H. 5.

 

 [119] Rawdhat al-Kafi, H. 38.

 

 [120] Shaykh al-Saduq: Fadhaa ’il al-Shiah H. 8.